Difference between revisions of "How Complex is "Personal Computing"? (2009)"

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<subtitle id="0:0:7">so I'll just put thing you guys whoop I  should</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:0:7">so I'll just put thing you guys whoop I  should</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:0:10"> get your signature back</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:0:10"> get your signature back</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:13"> I was  just gonna write the name of I'll put</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:13"> I was  just gonna write the name of I'll</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:16"> it  over here so the the basic</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:16"> put it  over here so the the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:19"> apologize</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:19"> basic apologize</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:22"> in  advance for a couple of things</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:22"> in  advance for a couple of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:25"> one</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:25"> things one</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:0:28"> is  one is the</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:0:28"> is  one is the</subtitle>
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<subtitle id="0:0:31"> brevity and the</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:0:31"> brevity and the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:34"> kind of livid  is a navy term for five pounds of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:34"> kind of livid  is a navy term for five</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:37"> shit  in a one pound bag and so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:37"> pounds of shit  in a one pound bag and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:40"> we have a lot  more information</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:40"> so we have a lot  more information</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:43"> that we'd like to talk  to you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:43"> that we'd like to talk</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:46"> about but we haven't ever been</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:46">  to you about but we haven't ever</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:49">  able to fit it into an hour and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:49"> been  able to fit it into an hour and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:52"> so we're  gonna try to give</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:52"> so we're  gonna try</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:0:55"> you the gist of some  of the things that we're</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:0:55"> to give you the gist of some  of the things that we're</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:0:58"> doing but this  website</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:0:58"> doing but this  website</subtitle>
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<subtitle id="0:1:7">maybe our talks are kind of a commercial</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:1:7">maybe our talks are kind of a commercial</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:10">  to just have you look</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:10">  to just have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:13"> at some of the  stuff there so I'm just gonna spend a  few minutes giving</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:13"> you look at some of the  stuff there so I'm just gonna spend a  few</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:16"> you the context</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:16"> minutes giving you the context</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:19"> for a  project that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:19"> for a  project</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:22"> the NSF reviewers turned  the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:22"> that the NSF reviewers turned</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:25"> preposterous proposal when they  turned it down</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:25">the preposterous proposal when they  turned it down</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:1:28"> anybody ever been turned  down by an</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:1:28"> anybody ever been turned  down by an</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:31"> NSF peer review now</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:31"> NSF peer review</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:34"> it turns  out that the program managers at NSF</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:34"> now it turns  out that the program managers at</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:37">have always had the power to override  those and in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:37"> NSF  have always had the power to override  those and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:40"> this case the program  manager</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:40"> in this case the program  manager</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:1:43"> did override it so we got our  money anyway</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:1:43"> did override it so we got our  money anyway</subtitle>
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<subtitle id="0:1:46"> but they only gave us money  to</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:1:46"> but they only gave us money  to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:49"> cover about half the expenses of this  project so we</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:49"> cover about half the expenses of this  project</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:52"> raised a matching amount  of money</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:52"> so we raised a matching amount  of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:55"> to do it it's a project that a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:55"> money to do it it's a project that a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:1:58">number of us have been thinking about  for as</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:1:58">  number of us have been thinking about  for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:1"> long as 30 years that would be  really interesting</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:1"> as long as 30 years that would be  really</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:4"> to do and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:4"> interesting to do and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:7"> it would be  very much in the original spirit of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:7"> it would be  very much in the original spirit</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:10">computer science was supposed to be as  articulated</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:10"> of what  computer science was supposed to be as  articulated</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:13"> in the 60s by Al  so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:13"> in the 60s by Al</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:16">  so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:19"> that kind of starts</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:19"> that kind of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:22">quintessential Maxwell's equations  t-shirt</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:22"> starts with the  quintessential Maxwell's equations  t-shirt</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:2:25"> and</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:2:25"> and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:28"> this is one that everybody's  seen</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:28"> this is one that everybody's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:31"> and if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:31">  seen and if</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:2:34"> you're familiar with Maxwell  you know that he actually</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:2:34"> you're familiar with Maxwell  you know that he actually</subtitle>
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<subtitle id="0:2:37"> wrote five  papers arriving</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:2:37"> wrote five  papers arriving</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:40"> at these conclusions and  in five different ways he</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:40"> at these conclusions and  in five different ways</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:43"> did this over  a period of years using different</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:43"> he did this over  a period of years using</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:46"> models  and the original form of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:46"> different models  and the original</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:49"> maskull's  equations was not fiddle on a t-shirt</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:49"> form of maskull's  equations was not fiddle on a t-shirt</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:52">  so this form was actually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:52">  so this form was</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:55"> made by  several people including the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:55"> actually made by  several people including</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:2:58"> Germans who  were much more interested in it than the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:2:58"> the Germans who  were much more interested in it than the</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:3:1">  British in</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:3:1">  British in</subtitle>
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<subtitle id="0:3:7"> equations violated Newton and  Newton was</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:3:7"> equations violated Newton and  Newton was</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:10"> a god Maxwell was only their  best guy in the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:10"> a god Maxwell was only their  best guy</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:13"> 19th century but Newton  was</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:13"> in the 19th century but Newton  was</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:16"> a god and of course the interesting</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:16"> a god and of course the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:19">  thing about getting him in this form is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:19"> interesting  thing about getting him in this form is</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:3:22">  although Faraday's</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:3:22">  although Faraday's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:25"> experiments showed  that there should</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:25"> experiments showed  that there</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:28"> be a symmetric  relationship between the electric</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:28"> should be a symmetric  relationship between the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:31"> and  magnetic fields the equation didn't show</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:31"> electric and  magnetic fields the equation didn't</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:34">  those relations as symmetric</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:34"> show  those relations as symmetric</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:37"> and this  asymmetry and this way of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:37"> and this  asymmetry and this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:40">things led to Einstein's theory of  relativity and in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:40">things led to Einstein's theory of  relativity and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:43"> fact a much simpler  form of writing these</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:43"> in fact a much simpler  form of writing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:46"> guys down and  reason</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:46"> these guys down and  reason</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:3:49"> I'm putting it up there is I had  a similar</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:3:49"> I'm putting it up there is I had  a similar</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:52"> experience when I was in  graduate school</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:52"> experience when I was in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:55"> trying to understand  programming languages and I looked at</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:55">graduate school trying to understand  programming languages and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:3:58">  the bottom of page 13 of the list 1.5</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:3:58"> I looked at  the bottom of page 13 of the list</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:1">  manual and here was McCarthy's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:1"> 1.5  manual and here</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:4">  formulation of Lisp using itself as a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:4"> was McCarthy's  formulation of Lisp using itself</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:7">  metal language and how</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:7"> as a  metal language and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:10"> many people have  had the experience of going</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:10"> how many people have  had the experience of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:13"> through this  it takes a couple of hours on a Sunday  afternoon</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:13"> going through this  it takes a couple of hours on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:16"> to do and you run out of  fingers because</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:16"> a Sunday  afternoon to do and you run out of  fingers</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:19"> you have your fingers  down in all the places that recursos</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:19"> because you have your fingers  down in all the places that recursos</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:22"> and  reenters and so forth and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:22"> and  reenters and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:25"> I felt I  understand stood it when I found  in this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:25"> forth and I felt I  understand stood it when I found  in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:28"> code there is one bug and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:28"> this code there is one bug</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:31"> the  thing I got out of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:31"> and the  thing I got</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:34"> it is boy after those  two hours I understood</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:34"> out of it is boy after those  two hours I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:37"> what programming  languages were about a factor of a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:37"> understood what programming  languages were about a factor</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:4:40">hundred better than I did before I went  in because</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:4:40">hundred better than I did before I went  in because</subtitle>
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<subtitle id="0:4:43"> McCarthy had carved away all  the bullshit and</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:4:43"> McCarthy had carved away all  the bullshit and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:46"> God that's something  that was</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:46"> God that's something</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:49"> more powerful than any other  programming language of the day and more</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:49">that was more powerful than any other  programming language of the day</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:52">powerful expressively the most  programming languages today</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:52">powerful expressively the most  programming languages</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:4:55"> and had</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:4:55"> today and had</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:4:58"> done  it in this interesting</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:4:58"> done  it in this interesting</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:1"> form and in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:1"> form and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:4"> fact  it had a lot of effect on subsequent</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:4"> in fact  it had a lot of effect on subsequent</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:7">  things that were done and because I had  a math</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:7">  things that were done and because I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:10"> degree I just love this stuff and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:10"> had  a math degree I just love</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:13">  so we</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:13"> this stuff and  so we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:16"> tried these ideas a number of  times on various</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:16"> tried these ideas a number of  times on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:19">of the stuff we did it  Xerox PARC</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:19"> various projects including some  of the stuff we did it  Xerox</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:22"> that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:22"> PARC that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:25"> gee you can do</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:25"> gee you can</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:28">programming language in under a thousand  lines of code or</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:28"> do a  programming language in under a thousand  lines of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:31"> you might be able to do  it in the page and there</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:31"> code or you might be able to do  it in the page and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:34"> are advantages  to the page for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:34"> there are advantages  to the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:37"> sure so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:37"> page for sure so</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:5:40"> so</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:5:40"> so</subtitle>
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<subtitle id="0:5:46"> do you it'd be  really interesting if</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:5:46"> do you it'd be  really interesting if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:52">you could apply this way of looking at</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:52">you could apply this way of looking</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:5:55">processes to an entire system that's  well</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:5:55"> at  processes to an entire system that's  well</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:5:58"> understood like personal computing  so</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:5:58"> understood like personal computing  so</subtitle>
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<subtitle id="0:6:1"> we have now this interesting idea  that if</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:6:1"> we have now this interesting idea  that if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:4"> science is the study of and  modeling of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:4"> science is the study of and  modeling</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:7"> phenomena in order to  understand it better we actually build</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:7"> of phenomena in order to  understand it better we actually</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:10">  artifacts that exhibit interesting  phenomena</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:10"> build  artifacts that exhibit interesting</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:13"> and what John did is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:13">  phenomena and what John</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:16"> to take  the phenomena exhibited by programming  languages</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:16"> did is to take  the phenomena exhibited by programming</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:19"> of the day and find an  abstraction that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:19">languages of the day and find an  abstraction that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:22">abstraction happened to be more powerful  than</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:22"> captured them his  abstraction happened to be more powerful  than</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:25"> the ones he was looking at which is  kind of an old mathematicians</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:25"> the ones he was looking at which is  kind of an old</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:28"> trick you  know solved the more general problem</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:28"> mathematicians trick you  know solved the more</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:31"> if  you can and so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:31"> general problem if  you can and so</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:6:34"> the idea here was be</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:6:34"> the idea here was be</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:37">  interesting to take this body of  behavior</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:37">  interesting to take this body</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:40"> from the end-user to the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:40"> of  behavior from the end-user to the</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:6:43"> metal  of the Machine and</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:6:43"> metal  of the Machine and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:46"> try to understand it  by right</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:46"> try to understand it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:49"> making a model that you could  actually run it would generate</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:49">by right making a model that you could  actually run it would generate</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:52"> the same  phenomena and so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:52"> the same  phenomena and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:55"> how many t-shirts would  it take to do all</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:55"> so how many t-shirts would  it take to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:6:58"> of personal computing  that's the question here you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:6:58"> do all of personal computing  that's the question here you</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:7:1"> can see why  they called it preposterous right</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:7:1"> can see why  they called it preposterous right</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:4">  because Microsoft's version of this is a  few</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:4">  because Microsoft's version of this is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:7"> hundred million lines of code their</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:7"> a  few hundred million lines of code their</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:10">  operating system and the same</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:10">  operating system and the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:13"> Microsoft  Office is about 220 million lines</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:13"> same Microsoft  Office is about 220 million</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:16"> of  code but if you think about</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:16"> lines of  code but if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:19"> it with the  view of well what is it doing really</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:19"> you think about it with the  view of well what is it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:22"> and  how many things in it that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:22"> doing really and  how many things in</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:7:25">decided to do differently for example  are</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:7:25">decided to do differently for example  are</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:28"> actually the same thing masquerading  under a few</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:28"> actually the same thing masquerading  under a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:31"> simple parameterizations and  and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:31"> few simple parameterizations and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:34"> also the first time around that this  stuff was done</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:34">  and also the first time around that this  stuff</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:37"> it was only ten thousand  lines of code it at</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:37"> was done it was only ten thousand  lines of code it at</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:7:40"> Xerox PARC and  there's not a lot more</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:7:40"> Xerox PARC and  there's not a lot more</subtitle>
Line 308: Line 307:
 
<subtitle id="0:7:43"> functionality now</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:7:43"> functionality now</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:46">than there was back then so the idea is  this could</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:46">  than there was back then so the idea is  this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:49"> be a lot smaller and be very</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:49"> could be a lot smaller and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:52">  interesting to see for the same reasons  that these</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:52"> be very  interesting to see for the same reasons</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:55"> two guys are interesting but  this would be look</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:55">  that these two guys are interesting but  this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:7:58">what our project  is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:7:58"> would be look look like so that's  what our project  is</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:8:1"> and there's one more tea involved  here</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:8:1"> and there's one more tea involved  here</subtitle>
Line 322: Line 321:
 
<subtitle id="0:8:4"> which is we one</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:8:4"> which is we one</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:7"> of the things  that's nice about making</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:7"> of the things  that's nice about</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:10"> things small  and simple is you got something like</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:10"> making things small  and simple is you got</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:13"> a  Model T Ford which any 12 year old</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:13"> something like a  Model T Ford which any 12</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:16"> could  take apart in the barn over</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:16"> year old could  take apart in the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:19"> the weekend  and put together only had about 350  major</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:19"> barn over the weekend  and put together only had about 350</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:22"> parts in it and about a thousand</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:22">  major parts in it and about a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:25">  screws and nuts and bolts and stuff so  anybody who</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:25"> thousand  screws and nuts and bolts and stuff so  anybody</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:28"> grew up in a farm like I did</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:28"> who grew up in a farm like I did</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:31">where there's still Model T trucks and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:31">where there's still Model T trucks</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:34">in the 40 they would be routinely taken  apart they</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:34"> and  in the 40 they would be routinely taken  apart</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:37"> recently were still around  this you couldn't couldn't really kill</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:37"> they recently were still around  this you couldn't couldn't really</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:40">  them because everything</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:40"> kill  them because everything</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:43"> that broke on  them was fixable in the blacksmithing  shop</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:43"> that broke on  them was fixable in the blacksmithing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:46"> that every farm had back then there  was nothing true they didn't</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:46">  shop that every farm had back then there  was nothing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:49"> even have a  distributor they didn't even have gears</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:49"> true they didn't even have a  distributor they didn't even have gears</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:52">  they had belts</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:52">  they had</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:55"> and pulleys on them so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:55"> belts and pulleys on them</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:8:58">but they're a real automobiles so they  had this interesting</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:8:58"> so  but they're a real automobiles so they  had this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:1"> thing they caused  even though their automobiles</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:1"> interesting thing they caused  even though their automobiles</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:4">before them they caused the automobile  revolution</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:4"> around and  before them they caused the automobile  revolution</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:7"> in America because they were  so easy to manufacture and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:7"> in America because they were  so easy to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:10"> they lasted  well and so forth so just</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:10"> manufacture and they lasted  well and so forth so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:13"> one bottle T  story</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:13"> just one bottle T</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:16"> the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:16">  story the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:19"> gap the spark gap on</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:19"> gap the spark</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:22"> Model T  was</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:22"> gap on Model T  was</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:9:25"> optimized to be the width of a dime</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:9:25"> optimized to be the width of a dime</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:28">  and somebody asked Henry Ford once why  did</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:28">  and somebody asked Henry Ford once why</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:31"> you do that and he said well people  always lose</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:31">  did you do that and he said well people  always</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:34"> gauges but they usually have  a dime on them so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:34"> lose gauges but they usually have  a dime on them</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:37"> he's fully expected  anybody who's had one of these things</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:37"> so he's fully expected  anybody who's had one of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:40">would be able to just fix it and tweak  it up and that's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:40"> these things  would be able to just fix it and tweak  it up and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:43"> what happened so it's a  nice metaphor</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:43"> that's what happened so it's a  nice metaphor</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:9:46">so</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:9:46">so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:49"> my theory is before you write the  Ferrari code you should write</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:49"> my theory is before you write the  Ferrari code</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:52"> model-t  code because there's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:52"> you should write model-t  code because there's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:55"> a 12 year old kid  who just isn't gonna be able to  understand</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:55"> a 12 year old kid  who just isn't gonna be able to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:9:58"> the Ferrari code and you have  a moral obligation to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:9:58">understand the Ferrari code and you have  a moral obligation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:1"> write that Model T  code that is understandable</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:1"> to write that Model T  code that is understandable</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:10:4"></subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:10:4"></subtitle>
Line 404: Line 403:
 
<subtitle id="0:10:7"> so</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:10:7"> so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:10"> kind of  the standard model for personal  computing</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:10"> kind of  the standard model for personal</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:13"> is from the Xerox</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:13">  computing is from the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:16"> PARC</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:16"> Xerox PARC</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:10:19">  experience and so</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:10:19">  experience and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:22"> the bitmap screen that  can display anything and a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:22"> the bitmap screen that  can display anything and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:25"> way of  organizing views on the display</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:25"> a way of  organizing views on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:28"> and  people have been confused</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:28"> the display and  people</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:31"> by the  difference between desktop publishing</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:31"> have been confused by the  difference between desktop publishing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:34">  and Microsoft for instance has been</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:34">  and Microsoft for instance has</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:37"> and  window display they're actually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:37"> been and  window display</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:40"> the same  thing just these guys have</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:40"> they're actually the same  thing just these</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:43"> boundaries  around the views and the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:43"> guys have boundaries  around the views and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:46">publishing you don't have boundaries  around the views but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:46">publishing you don't have boundaries  around the views</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:49"> aside from that  everything else is exactly the same and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:49"> but aside from that  everything else is exactly the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:52">  it was done with the same code so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:52"> same and  it was done with the same code</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:55"> this  is a modern version of it</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:55"> so this  is a modern version of it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:10:58"> and I'm  disappointed</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:10:58"> and I'm</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:1"> in this display because  Danny</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:1">  disappointed in this display because</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:4"> molang has done a lot of work to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:4">  Danny molang has done a lot of work to</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:11:7">  do really fantastic graphics</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:11:7">  do really fantastic graphics</subtitle>
Line 446: Line 445:
 
<subtitle id="0:11:10"> which some  of the</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:11:10"> which some  of the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:13"> things are shown here and you  can't see how crisp</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:13"> things are shown here and you  can't see</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:16"> and beautiful it is  but this is kind of a modern</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:16"> how crisp and beautiful it is  but this is kind</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:19"> version of  it done with some of the stuff that that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:19"> of a modern version of  it done with some of the stuff that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:22">  that we've</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:22"> that  that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:25"> done and just to show you a  little slant of it</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:25"> we've done and just to show you a  little slant</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:28">  here</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:28"> of it  here</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:11:31"> so I I can</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:11:31"> so I I can</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:11:34"> edit this as I'm as I'm</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:11:34"> edit this as I'm as I'm</subtitle>
 +
 +
<subtitle id="0:11:37">  used to doing</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:11:40">and</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:11:40">and</subtitle>
Line 466: Line 467:
 
<subtitle id="0:11:43"> but I can this</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:11:43"> but I can this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:46">completely differently than the way you  might think so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:46"> thing is programmed  completely differently than the way you  might think</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:49"> for instance the the code  behind</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:49"> so for instance the the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:52"> these paragraphs is the  justification</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:52"> code  behind these paragraphs is the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:55"> and the editor for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:55">  justification and the editor</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:11:58"> come to  about 23 lines of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:11:58"> for come to  about 23</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:1"> code in one of the  languages we developed to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:1"> lines of code in one of the  languages we developed</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:4"> do this and  I'm not gonna explain exactly</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:4"> to do this and  I'm not gonna explain</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:7"> how we did  this but I'll just give you a little  flavor of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:7"> exactly how we did  this but I'll just give you a little</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:10"> what's actually going on here  so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:10">  flavor of what's actually going on here  so</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:12:13"> you can think of this as swarm  programming</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:12:13"> you can think of this as swarm  programming</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:16"> so what we have is thousands  and thousands</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:16"> so what we have is thousands</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:19"> of parallel processes  running</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:19">  and thousands of parallel processes</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:22"> at the same time and these are  all objects</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:22">  running at the same time and these are</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:25"> and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:25">  all objects and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:28"> so the slowest simplest</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:28"> so the slowest</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:31">  way you can think of doing</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:31"> simplest  way you can think of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:34"> the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:34"> doing the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:37"> problem  here is well</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:37"> problem  here is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:40"> just follow the guy in  front of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:40"> well just follow the guy in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:43"> you if you don't have anybody  in front of you you know where to go if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:43">front of you if you don't have anybody  in front of you you know where</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:46">you're over the margin tell the guy in  front of you and if somebody</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:46"> to go if  you're over the margin tell the guy in  front of you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:49"> tells you  they're on the margin and you're the  first there's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:49"> and if somebody tells you  they're on the margin and you're the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:52"> a blank in front of you  then go to the next line all right so  that's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:52">first there's a blank in front of you  then go to the next line all</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:55"> four things that do a text</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:55"> right so  that's four things that do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:12:58">  justification Oulu</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:12:58"> a text  justification</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:1"> sore anything they're  just all running and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:1"> Oulu sore anything they're  just all</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:4"> they're related to  each other so we call this particles</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:4"> running and they're related to  each other so we call</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:7"> and  fields type programming and there's a  lot of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:7"> this particles and  fields type programming and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:10"> it in this in the system and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:10"> there's a  lot of it in this in the system</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:13"> you  notice that I've embedded a view of the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:13"> and you  notice that I've embedded a view</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:16">  entire document recursively into it so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:16"> of the  entire document recursively into it so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:19">  that was operating at the same time so  this is basically</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:19">  that was operating at the same time so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:22"> this kind of stuff in  which each part</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:22">this is basically this kind of stuff in  which</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:25"> of the thing has been  mathematize dand done in a separate</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:25"> each part of the thing has been  mathematize dand done in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:28">programming language and of course we  have to make the programming</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:28"> a separate  programming language and of course we  have to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:31">to do it we have to make the tools to  make the programming</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:31"> make the programming languages  to do it we have to make the tools to  make the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:34"> languages to do it  and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:34"> programming languages to do it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:37">but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:37">  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:40"> what we don't try to do so these are  the three main</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:40">but what we don't try to do so these are  the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:43"> operating systems and  won't</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:43"> three main operating systems and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:46"> tell you which one the lemon is  but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:46">  won't tell you which one the lemon is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:49"> they're all big and we</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:49">  but they're all big and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:52"> want to avoid  apples and oranges comparison</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:52"> we want to avoid  apples and oranges</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:55"> so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:55"> comparison so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:13:58"> the  stuff that we're doing is is not</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:13:58"> the  stuff that we're doing is is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:1"> there's  nothing that we can do that can</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:1"> not there's  nothing that we can do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:4"> be  honestly compared to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:4"> that can be  honestly compared to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:7"> what Microsoft or  Apple do because they</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:7"> what Microsoft or  Apple do because</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:10"> have legacy  problems we don't have there's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:10"> they have legacy  problems we don't have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:13"> a million  things so we don't even worry about that  but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:13"> there's a million  things so we don't even worry about that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:16"> here's a t-shirt with a mustard seed  on it and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:16">  but here's a t-shirt with a mustard seed  on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:19"> that gives you kind of what  we're out after out after</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:19"> it and that gives you kind of what  we're out after</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:22"> more than a  factor of a thousand change</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:22"> out after more than a  factor of a thousand change</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:25"> in the size  of the code that it takes to make this  kind of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:25"> in the size  of the code that it takes to make this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:28"> phenomena something more like a  factor</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:28">  kind of phenomena something</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:31"> of 10,000</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:31"> more like a  factor of 10,000</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:14:34"> and</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:14:34"> and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:37">so if you have the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:37">so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:40"> end-user at one end  and you have a power supply at the other</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:40"> if you have the end-user at one end  and you have a power supply at</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:43">  you have a lot of different</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:43"> the other  you have a lot</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:46"> kinds of  phenomena in there and the question is  how many</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:46"> of different kinds of  phenomena in there and the question</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:49"> t-shirts do you actually have  to do so you think</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:49">how many t-shirts do you actually have  to do so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:52"> of the the two and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:52"> you think of the the two</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:55"> a  half D anti-alias graphics as you'd</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:55"> and a  half D anti-alias graphics as</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:14:58"> love  to have that in one or two t-shirts  so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:14:58"> you'd love  to have that in one or two t-shirts</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:1"> that's regularly a couple hundred  thousand lines of code and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:1">o that's regularly a couple hundred  thousand lines of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:4"> if you think</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:4"> code and if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:7">of the number of different languages you  might want to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:7"> you think  of the number of different languages you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:10"> invent to mathematize the  different parts of these</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:10">  might want to invent to mathematize the  different</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:13">probably five or ten different languages  you have to do</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:13"> parts of these things there's  probably five or ten different languages  you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:16"> so you have to have a  metal language metal language has to  deal with itself</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:16"> have to do so you have to have a  metal language metal language has</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:19"> and and so forth and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:19"> to  deal with itself and and so forth and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:22">  you'd like to improve</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:22">  you'd</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:25"> semantics of  programming and so forth so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:25"> like to improve semantics of  programming and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:28"> we have a  dozen or so powerful</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:28"> forth so we have a  dozen or so powerful</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:31"> principles here are  ten of them there's nothing more boring</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:31"> principles here are  ten of them there's nothing more</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:34">  than somebody enumerated list</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:34"> boring  than somebody enumerated list</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:37"> on a slide  so I'll just point out</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:37"> on a slide  so I'll just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:40"> that most of  these powerful principles are ones that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:40"> point out that most of  these powerful principles</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:43">have been around since I started in  computing in the early 60s</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:43">have been around since I started in  computing in the early</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:46"> and most of  them are not in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:46"> 60s and most of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:49"> general use today or in  use the way they</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:49">them are not in general use today or in  use the way they</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:15:52"> were originally used so</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:15:52"> were originally used so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:55">  some of these are things that have been</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:55">  some of these are things that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:15:58">  resurrected so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:15:58"> have been  resurrected so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:1"> the particles infield is  something that hasn't hasn't been</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:1"> the particles infield is  something that hasn't</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:4"> used  very much but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:4"> hasn't been used  very much but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:7"> the notion of simulating  time not letting the CPU determine</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:7"> the notion of simulating  time not letting the CPU</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:10"> what  time is all about goes back to both</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:10"> determine what  time is all about goes back</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:13">  Simula and john</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:13"> to both  Simula and john</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:16"> mccarthy situation  calculus these are old</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:16"> mccarthy situation  calculus these are</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:19"> ideas but they  have the great</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:19"> old ideas but they</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:22"> advantage that you don't  get deadlocks</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:22">have the great advantage that you don't  get</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:25">monitors and semaphores  so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:25"> deadlocks from trying to use  monitors and semaphores  so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:28"> the basic idea is if you simulate the  time that you're running in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:28"> the basic idea is if you simulate the  time that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:31">have race conditions that you haven't  explicitly</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:31"> you're running in you cannot  have race conditions that you haven't  explicitly</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:34"> allowed and so on</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:34"> allowed and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:37"> so the  underlying idea here is that math wins</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:37"> on so the  underlying idea here is that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:40">  not standard math but math that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:40"> math wins  not standard math but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:43"> you  actually invent in order to characterize  all</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:43"> math that you  actually invent in order</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:46"> the different behaviors that you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:46"> to characterize  all the different behaviors that you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:49">  half and with that I'm going to turn it</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:49">  half and with that I'm going to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:52">  over to Dan amma lang who</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:52"> turn it  over to Dan amma lang who</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:55">you a little bit about how we do the  graphics because</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:55"> will talk to  you a little bit about how we do the  graphics</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:16:58"> this is kind of a  classic case study of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:16:58"> because this is kind of a  classic case study</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:1"> of</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:17:4"> give you this</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:17:4"> give you this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:7"> dan  is a graduate student at</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:7"> dan  is a graduate</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:10"> UC san diego  and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:10"> student at UC san diego  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:13"> just got his master's for part of  this and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:13"> just got his master's for part</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:16"> is on his way to getting his  PhD for the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:16">his and is on his way to getting his  PhD for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:19"> rest of it</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:19"> the rest of it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:22"> and well what  we'd like to do here is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:22"> and well what  we'd like to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:25"> to I don't think  anything</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:25"> do here is to I don't</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:28"> I said needs questions except  maybe to the end</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:28"> think  anything I said needs questions except  maybe</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:31"> but be great  I brought</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:31"> to the end but be great  I brought</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:34"> the three people who did a lot  of work in this system</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:34"> the three people who did a lot  of work</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:37"> along there by  the time</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:37"> in this system along there</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:40"> you get to my age you're just a  figurehead some</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:40">the time you get to my age you're just a  figurehead some</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:43"> thrill to actual  actually bring</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:43"> thrill to actual  actually</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:46"> people who are doing  stuff here and to have them tell you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:46"> bring people who are doing  stuff here and to have them</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:49">little bit about how they're approaching  these</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:49"> tell you a  little bit about how they're approaching  these</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:52"> problems and hope you do ask  questions</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:52"> problems and hope you do ask</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:55"> hello</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:55">  questions hello</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:17:58"> so like Alan said my  name is Dan am</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:17:58"> so like Alan said my  name is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:1"> Liang I'm a grad student  like you guys so go</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:1"> Dan am Liang I'm a grad student  like you guys</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:4"> easy on me I'm  getting</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:4"> so go easy on me I'm</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:7"> towards the end of my</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:7">  getting towards the end of my</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:10"> times of  PhD students so I'm</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:10"> times of  PhD students so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:13"> gonna present to you  basically where</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:13"> I'm gonna present to you  basically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:16"> I am on my dissertation  work I have still about</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:16"> where I am on my dissertation  work I have still</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:19"> a year and a  little more than that to go</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:19"> about a year and a  little more than</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:22"> although  I've noticed that kind of just extends</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:22"> that to go although  I've noticed that kind of just extends</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:18:25">  forward it's a tradition of PhD</subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:18:25">  forward it's a tradition of PhD</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:28"> students  right so I'm a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:28"> students  right so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:31"> UCSD PhD student and I  but I'm also an</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:31"> I'm a UCSD PhD student and I  but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:34"> employee of viewpoints  Research Institute and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:34"> I'm also an employee of viewpoints  Research Institute</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:37"> so my little  niche in this project is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:37"> and so my little  niche in this project</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:40"> the 2d  rendering system because we'd like to  build</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:40"> is the 2d  rendering system because we'd</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:43">  a whole</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:43">build  a whole</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:46"> basically a whole software stack  and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:46"> basically a whole software stack</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:49"> we're not allowed to just delegate  to the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:49">and we're not allowed to just delegate  to the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:52"> operating system routines we want  to reinvent programming</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:55">to reinvent programming at every level  so I have some background in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:55"> at every level  so I have some background in computer</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:18:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:18:58">  graphics and some in programming  languages</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:1"> and computer architecture and  so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:4"> basically it fell on me to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:7"> figure out  how to do two new rendering so the the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:10">sub-project of mine is called Jazeera  and like</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:13"> I said it's a 2d graphics  rendering the spirit of this project</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:16"> the  idea is to provide something that's  practical</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:19"> useful for the other projects  sub</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:22"> projects that viewpoints to actually  use specifically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:25"> the focus right now is  building</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:28"> user interfaces and so my</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:31"> job  is to discover what are the minimal  algorithms</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:34"> the powerful abstractions new  representations so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:37"> that I don't use up  our code but budget and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:40"> just in my sub  project because</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:43"> the goal here is again  is to happen</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:46"> and you know the whole  system's the whole thing is is minimal</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:49">  so and again this isn't</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:52">hough I'm doing computer graphics the  focus here is more</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:55"> software engineering  I'm not going to do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:19:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:19:58"> anything that's  really advancing the state-of-the-art  computer</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:1"> graphics so much so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:4"> what are  the requirements of this graphics  library</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:7"> well today in today's systems</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:10">  you expect anti-aliased vector graphics</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:13">  what people use nowadays is typically  flash</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:16"> SVG core graphics on mac OS x</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:19">  windows presentation foundation so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:22"> that  that's kind of and not my competitors  but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:25"> what's similar to what</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:28"> currently  provides that functionality today</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:31"> in  commercial systems right so in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:34"> that in a  2d render you want to have bezzie</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:37">  outlines for your shapes you want to be  able to display text</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:40"> transformations  clipping all pretty</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:43"> traditional stuff  the blending</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:46"> operations digital images  pen stroking for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:49"> the outline of  of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:52"> shapes so as</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:55"> I was working on this I  started with the Cairo open-source</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:20:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:20:58">  vendor project</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:1"> which I've been working  on before I joined</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:4"> viewpoints and so I  was able to take kind of a lessons</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:7">learned from working on Cairo which is  the render</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:10"> behind Firefox and various</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:13">  open source applications and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:16"> as I was  kind of going through the Cairo code and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:19">  thinking you know stepping back from it  and figure</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:22"> out what really is the high  level intention</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:25"> of these coders I came</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:28">  across the rasterization stage which is  probably</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:31"> the most complex part of the  whole</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:34"> software library anyone who's  taken an undergrad</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:37"> computer graphics of  course that's had to implement</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:40"> like  scanline fill knows that it's it's it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:43">kind of tricky getting all the edge  cases and and there really</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:46"> isn't a  strict formula that tells you what what</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:49">he output should be there it's usually  described as some sort</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:52"> of an algorithm  with data structures active edge list  etc</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:55"> and and so I couldn't figure</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:21:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:21:58">know what really is the highest level  semantics of rasterization</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:1"> so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:4"> and it's  difficult so I looked</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:7"> at I look at some  kind of non-traditional algorithms</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:10"> for  forwarding Astros ation especially</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:13">things specific to 2d because I can kind  of ignore the complexities</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:16"> of 3d here  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:19"> and and you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:22"> know one one method kind  of stuck out at me there's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:25"> this approach  called analytic area based anti-aliasing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:28">  rasterization that looks sort of like</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:31">formula but everyone's still expressed  in terms of like a big</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:34"> K statement and  so I felt</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:37"> you know there's still  something to be extracted here so I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:40">  called my mom</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:43"> luckily she's a high  school geometry teacher</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:46"> and  a great</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:49"> partner to have and trying to  figure out all this computational</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:52">  geometry that I was in the middle and so  we had</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:55"> we sat down for about 10 days and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:22:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:22:58">  did like pair programming with a pencil  and paper</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:1"> and we didn't end up with an  interesting formula</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:4"> if you pose a  problem this way if we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:7"> say given the XY  coordinates to the lower left corner of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:10">a pixel we can say that the coverage  contribution of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:13"> one edge of that shape  is calculated</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:16"> this way so if we just  look at it one edge at a time you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:19"> can  actually use it using an approximation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:22">  square for the pixel you can the bottom</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:25">function is what you is kind of what you  want to look at most</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:28"> it's just that you  can actually combine these</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:31"> three pretty  much standard functions in in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:34"> 2d  geometry in an interesting way</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:37"> that gets  you a nice coverage</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:40"> result from 0 to 100  so if the the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:43"> pixel is entirely outside  of the figure at 0 if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:46">entirely within you get 100 if it's on  the edge you get somewhere</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:49"> between the  two and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:52"> I only have 10 minutes but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:55">  basically the top one is variation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:23:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:23:58"> of  the area of a trapezoid the second one  is the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:1"> clamp function in mathematics and  the third one is a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:4"> variation of the  point slope formula</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:7"> for line anyway</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:10">once we have it for that one edge then  it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:13"> works out such that you the total  coverage</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:16"> contribution of the entire  polygon is just a linear</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:19"> combination of  those edge contributions with the little  additional</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:22"> adjustment so now we have a  formula</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:25"> but this doesn't execute so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:28"> I  haven't really won yet but at</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:31"> least I've  you know posed it in a way that then I  can</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:34"> imagine some sort of higher-level  language that can that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:37"> can turn this  into actual executable code so the  punchline</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:40"> is oh okay so then to verify  it  you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:43"> know I wrote some prototypes I have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:46">this node demo all I'll do for you  basically you're</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:49"> going to see you're  gonna see</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:52"> 1,000 snowflakes they're all  identical so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:55"> it's not very realistic  that all</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:24:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:24:58"> have independent position  a vertical velocity</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:1"> and angular velocity  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:4"> I'll just animate them and I'm not</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:7">using the GPU at all here this is just  on the CPU</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:10"> I render it to an image a  bitmap and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:13"> then just hand it to the  operating system to throw up on the  screen</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:16"> and so this isn't really speed  demon</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:19"> per se but it's just to prove that  first of all visual</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:22"> results are good and  that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:25"> it's fast enough that I'm not  paying myself into a corner</subtitle>
  
 
<subtitle id="0:25:28"></subtitle>
 
<subtitle id="0:25:28"></subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:25:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:31"> yeah and  then so after it starts up it'll</subtitle>
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:34"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:37"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:40"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:43"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:46"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:49"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:52"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:55"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:25:58"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:1"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:4"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:7"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:10"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:13"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:16"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:19"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:22"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:25"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:28"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:31"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:34"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:37"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:40"></subtitle>
 
 
 
<subtitle id="0:26:43"></subtitle>
 
  
<subtitle id="0:26:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:34"> fade in  a bit this is actually supposed to be  white</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:26:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:37"> or light blue on black you just  imagine</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:26:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:40"> this I'm sorry it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:26:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:43"> kind of  painful for maintenance</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:26:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:46"> and so I just no  flex because we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:49"> want to render text  really quickly without having to use</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:52">some sort of cash and speech scheme  because that kind of muddies up your</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:55">code so as long as I can render  something that's text like</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:25:58"> because each  one of these snowflakes</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:1"> is composed of  64 cubic Bezier which</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:4"> is usually much  more than what a typical</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:7"> glyph is that  you render on the screen</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:10"> so as long as I  can do these snowflakes quickly then you  know that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:13"> I can make a case that it'll  scale out to the text</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:16"> rendering so  zooming and just to show you that it's  vector</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:19"> graphics not not just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:22"> raster  graphics it's being scaled it's it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:25">coming from the vector primitives at  each frame</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:28"> yeah this is like when the  screen savers you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:31"> can stare out all day  but hip denies</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:34"> me enough so then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:37"> so then  yeah here's the punchline</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:40"> the goal was  to figure out how to express all that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:43"> in  80 lines of code</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:27:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:46"> and I'll explain what  this is so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:49"> this is a new programming  language called called</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:52"> nyle again the  goal is to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:55"> express the 2d rendering in a  way that is both succinctly</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:26:58"> on matted to  a variety of execution</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:1"> environments and  doesn't preclude efficient execution</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:4">  so after</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:7"> writing these prototypes it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:10"> it  seemed to me that the best model</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:13"> for for  the software would be a dataflow</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:16"> stream  processing model more generic</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:19"> then then  like the stream the stream languages</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:22">  today are kind of more tied to specific  deep</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:25"> to GPU hardware this is kind of a  more</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:28"> abstract stream processing model so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:31">  yeah the idea is that everything is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:34">just data streams that are being  processed by a series of kernels</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:37"> that  have been connected in a network and in  an interesting</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:40"> interesting fashion and  you get your pixel values</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:43"> at that at the  end of the pipeline and then we want</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:28:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:46">optimize the syntax for each one of  those kernels for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:49"> expressing arithmetic  vector</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:52"> computations you know domain  basically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:55"> domain-specific language for  arithmetic</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:27:58"> stream processing and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:1"> then we  want to be able to then generate</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:4"> code  for a variety of environments so like a  generate</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:7"> code to see because that'll get  a sufficient execution javascript</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:10">interesting because it's dynamic we can  do demos and the browser easily</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:13"> it's  they could perhaps you know we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:16"> can make  a nice IDE out of it perhaps we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:19">target more exotic languages like  Haskell which</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:22"> ends up having similar  Nile has very</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:25"> similar sin that semantics  in Haskell and then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:28"> you know we could go  blue sky and say maybe</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:31"> we can generate  code that runs on the GPU directly from  the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:34"> math and maybe we can go even  further and if and and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:37"> generate hardware  directly</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:40"> from the specifications that's  expressed in this high-level</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:43"> map we'll  see haven't done that yet yes sure</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:29:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:28:55">why</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:7">right so I am I am depending</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:10"> on some  magic technology that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:13"> can express my  compiler in some very succinctly</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:16"> luckily  I'm not the only one on this project</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:19"> you  can probably tell it comes after</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:22"> my talk  right so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:25"> I'm gonna breeze through this  real quick but this is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:28">explanation of the semantics of the  language with</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:31"> two example kernels on the  bottom</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:34"> yeah it's kind of like kind</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:37"> of a  it's kind of a mix of Haskell and APL</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:40">  but a very restricted subset of Haskell</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:43">  with yeah</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:46"> sorry I gotta move on so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:49"> now  that now that I have this program this  this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:52"> programming language to express it  in now</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:55"> I can get you know the core more</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:29:58">than just the core of a 2d rendering  about 386 lines</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:1"> of code really the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:30:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:4">two files are the ones that are needed  for for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:7"> the snow demo the rest of them  are</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:10"> kind of they</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:13"> expanded of beyond just  the core way you need from a 2d renderer  the compositor</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:16"> does although compositing  blending modes you get in in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:19"> flash in  PDF pen stroking gets you the outlines  etc</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:22"> etc but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:25"> now I have to get it to run  even though I have this language so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:28">initially I was just kind of manly  translated</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:31"> I had like two windows open  one with my Niall ideal</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:34"> code and then  one with like JavaScript or C and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:37"> I'd  kind of pretend like I were a compiler  during</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:40"> the early stages of the project  but then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:43"> alex is can demonstrate a  translator</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:46"> that the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:49"> he worked on that  allowed us to generate JavaScript that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:52">  could allow this renderer to code code  to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:55"> run in a web browser so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:30:58">see</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:4">I thought this oh of course not sorry</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:31:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:7">one  so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:10">  so we can do just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:13"> basic rendering and  the way</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:16"> I do this in the web browser and  I'm actually doing all the work in  JavaScript</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:19"> and then there's an API call  I can use in the web</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:22"> browser if anyone  knows about the canvas tag I can get I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:25">can fill this a JavaScript array with  color values and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:28"> then tell the browser  just throw those color values on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:31"> the  screen exactly the way I've popular.if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:34">  them in the ray which gets me sort of  like a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:37"> rudimentary frame buffer so you  can zoom in and see</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:40"> that you know it's  anti-alias I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:43"> know it looks horrible on  the projector huh</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:46"> it is we need so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:49"> that  gets us basic anti-aliased rendering and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:52">  then I'll just do one more that's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:55"> seen  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:31:58"> then we get little fancier with</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:1">Safari has an</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:4"> unusual bug sometimes it  doesn't pull in there we go we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:32:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:7"> can use  one of those compositing operations to  get</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:10"> this same star that's been rendered  but textured</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:13"> with with the radial  gradient on on to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:16"> the picture background  so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:19"> you can get a pretty good idea the  the color fades away as</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:22">from the radius it's kind of a standard  2d</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:25"> rendering okay</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:28"> all right so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:31"> but wait  but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:34"> now we're working on a novel to see  translator again we're doing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:37">translation first alex is working on  translator</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:40"> to go to see and and then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:43">hopefully you know this is something  we're hoping to have the next</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:46">days will have a practical real-world  graphics render</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:49"> synthesized from this  high-level high level mathematics</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:52"> and  just to give you an idea of how this  fits</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:55"> into the whole software development  cycle just for the C</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:32:58"> generator we have  these novel files now</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:1"> programs go  through a novelty translator we spit</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:4"> out  a header file a C file sent it through</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:33:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:7">the C compiler we get an object file  which we link with a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:10"> bit of runtime  support very little</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:13">then you have  you have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:16"> your application all</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:19"> right so  everything we have just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:22"> general policy  in the company is everything is  open-source</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:25"> MIT license you can check  out my</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:28"> stuff on github and the future  work is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:31"> to expand the backends for the  compiler</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:34"> expand the feature set I want  to have something that's pretty</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:37"> close to  the commercial 2d renders and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:40"> then I'd  like to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:43"> try other problem domains that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:46">  I'm hoping are well suited or that my  language</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:49"> is well suited for like audio  decoding or 3d rendering</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:52"> video decoding  data decompression</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:55"> that type of stuff so  I don't have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:33:58"> much time  I'm am I'm at a time so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:34:1"> maybe we can  hold questions for when we're all done  is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:34:16">thanks now this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:34:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:34:19"> microphone working yes</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:4">hi so I'm Alex</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:7"> and just jump</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:10">and I guess even before I started  working with Alan</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:13"> I was a programming  languages geek kind of and I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:16"> always like  having ideas about things that could  help out</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:19"> programmers and stuff one thing  that really gets to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:22"> me :  especially at that time</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:25"> that really got  to me was that you can't</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:28"> just keep  having ideas and just sort of you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:28">to me was that you can't just keep  having ideas and just sort of you know</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:31"> know  experiment with the ideas quickly  because</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:31">  experiment</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:34"> you have to prototype a  programming language when</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:37">ideas and that usually takes a lot of  time there's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:40"> a lot of effort that goes  into it and programming language</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:43">  designers like me we tend to get</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:46">lethargic you know and feel like oh man  okay I have a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:49"> couple of ideas that might  work but I really have to be</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:52"> selective  because I don't have infinite time to  implement</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:55"> all these things and so I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:35:58"> was  so upset about this so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:35:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:1"> I called my mom  and she said she</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:4"> said Alex I'm a  dermatologist what do you want me to do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:7">  so that didn't help very much but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:10"> but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:13">  yeah thank you all so that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:16"> luckily Alan  pointed me to some</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:19"> papers from the 1960s  and 70s that were</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:22"> really interesting and  one of them was</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:25"> a paper by Val Shui</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:28"> who  was a guy at UCLA in the 60s and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:31"> it was  about a language called meta 2 that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:34"> he  developed and it was a language</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:37"> it was a  compiler generator kind of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:40">very similar to parsing expression  grammars that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:43"> are sort of involved now  and but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:46"> the but this was in the 60s and  the computing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:49"> resources that Valve we  had were</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:52"> very limited and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:55"> and yet  somehow he was</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:36:58"> able to come up with this  little language that was fairly easy</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:36:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:1"> to  learn and allowed him to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:4"> implement a  pretty interesting</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:7"> subset of Algol in  like a page of code</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:10"> and the language  itself the the meta language could</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:13"> be  compiled by itself in about a page</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:16"> of  code as well and so I  get that stuff</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:19"> and I thought wow I have  to implement this on my own to try this  out</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:22">  you know the bootstrapping was beautiful  everything</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:25"> so once I did that which</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:28">took a day or so  I felt</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:31"> really empowered because I had  been using these</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:34"> uh these larger  frameworks like polyglot for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:37"> extending  Java they had written things by hand</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:40">  quite a few times to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:43"> know that you know  it was very costly and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:46"> when I started  doing this thing with meta 2 I got</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:49">  excited and I started extending it to  kind</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:52"> of catch up with the times because  for instance the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:55"> original thing didn't  support backtracking</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:37:58"> because resources  were limited</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:37:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:1"> and by now you can do as  much backtracking as you want and it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:4">  not a big deal so anyway</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:4"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:7"> I had some  ideas about extensions that I could have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:7"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:10">  on this thing and this this was</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:10"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:13"> kind of  the the birth of my language called Oh  meta which</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:13"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:16"> we have used to implement  several programming</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:16"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:19"> languages in this  project that we're experimenting with  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:19"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:22"> the goal of this thing is to  minimize</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:22"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:25"> the amount of time that it  takes to go from idea to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:28"> a working  prototype and I'm</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:28"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:31"> not so much I'm not so  worried about the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:31"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:34"> efficiency of the  prototype or whatever as long as I can  get something</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:34"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:36"> that runs efficiently  enough for me to try out the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:37"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:39"> idea and  make sure that it's that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:40"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:43"> it's a you know  an interesting thing to pursue further</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:43"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:45">and so on  but we've had a pretty good luck with  that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:46"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:48"> kind of thing and things that we've  made with it have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:49"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:51"> been fairly efficient  so far so what you're looking at</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:52"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:54"> right  now is kind of like a small talk  workspace</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:55"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:38:57"> interface that lets you type  in some code and evaluate</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:38:58"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:0"> it on the fly  and this is running inside the browser I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:1"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:3">have several meta implementations this  particular</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:4">have several meta implementations this  particular one uses</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:6"> one uses JavaScript as the  target language as the assembly</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:7"> JavaScript as the  target language as the assembly language  underneath</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:9"> language  underneath and so in this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:10"> and so in this web</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:12"> web browser I  can just type in a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:13"> browser I  can just type in a bunch</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:15"> bunch of code like  well even any</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:16"> of code like  well even any JavaScript</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:18"> JavaScript expression like  that I can</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:19"> expression like  that I can evaluate on the fly</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:21"> evaluate on the fly but  that's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:22"> but  that's not very interesting</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:24"> not very interesting right  because I as a language guy I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:25"> right  because I as a language guy I want</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:27">control over the language that I'm using  and so the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:28">control over the language that I'm using  and so the stuff</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:30">you tell it to evaluate is not  necessarily the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:31">you tell it to evaluate is not  necessarily the stuff that gets</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:33"> stuff that gets  evaluated there's a level of Indra</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:34">evaluated there's a level of Indra  there's an interaction</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:36">there's an interaction here in this  function groups</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:37"> here in this  function groups</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:39"> called translate code  that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:40"> called translate code  that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:42"> gets called with this string that  you want to evaluate</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:43"> gets called with this string that  you want to evaluate and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:45"> and is supposed to  return the the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:46"> is supposed to  return the the thing that you pass</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:48"> thing that you pass to  the eval function in JavaScript</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:49"> to  the eval function in JavaScript so it</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:51"> so it  doesn't matter what it says right now</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:52">  doesn't matter what it says right now  but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:54">  but the cool thing about this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:55"> the cool thing about this is it lets</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:39:57"> is it lets  you replace the programming language  that's been</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:39:58">you replace the programming language  that's been that's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:0"> that's being used in this  interface very</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:1"> being used in this  interface very easily and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:3"> easily and of course it's  very self-serving</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:4"> of course it's  very self-serving because</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:6"> because Oh Matta is  sort of the ideal language as</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:7"> Oh Matta is  sort of the ideal language as far as I'm  concerned</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:9">concerned to write something like  translate code  I'm</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:10">translate code  I'm very</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:12"> very modest so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:13"> modest so let's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:15"> let's see here I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:16"> see here I</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:18">  don't know why I can't see</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:19">  don't know why I can't see well</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:21"> well oh</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:22"> oh I</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:24">know what's going on hang on one sec  technical</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:25">know what's going on hang on one sec  technical difficulties</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:27"> difficulties okay so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:28"> okay so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:30"> instead  of going over the language and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:31"> instead  of going over the language and stuff I'm  just gonna</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:33"> stuff I'm  just gonna say few words about it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:34"> say few words about it and  then I'm gonna show</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:36">hen I'm gonna show you a bunch of  examples and end up with</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:37"> you a bunch of  examples and end up with Dan's niall</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:39"> Dan's niall  translator so the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:40">  translator so the the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:42"> the main idea in the  language is that pattern matching is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:43">language is that pattern matching is  good for most</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:45">good for most things that you care about  in writing a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:46"> things that you care about  in writing a translator for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:48"> translator for instance if  all you care about</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:49"> instance if  all you care about is lexical</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:51"> is lexical analysis  you could pattern match on a stream of  characters</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:52">you could pattern match on a stream of  characters and produce</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:54"> and produce a stream of  tokens similarly to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:55"> a stream of  tokens similarly to write</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:40:57"> write a parser you  can pattern match on the stream of  tokens</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:40:58">can pattern match on the stream of  tokens to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:0"> to produce parse trees and then  code</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:1"> produce parse trees and then  code generation</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:3"> generation at least naive code  generation can be</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:4"> at least naive code  generation can be done by pattern</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:6"> done by pattern  matching on a parse tree to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:7">  matching on a parse tree to output</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:9"> output some  code and so on even transformations</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:10"> some  code and so on even transformations on</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:12"> on  parse trees and optimizations can be  done</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:13">parse trees and optimizations can be  done in the same way</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:15"> in the same way and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:16"> and so let's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:18"> let's start  off with something</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:19"> start  off with something</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:21"> fairly standard so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:22"> fairly standard so a  little</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:24">little while ago is set down with a  friend of mine and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:25"> while ago is set down with a  friend of mine and I</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:27"> I wrote a library in  JavaScript that's about 70</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:28"> wrote a library in  JavaScript that's about 70 lines of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:30"> lines of code  that implements</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:31"> code  that implements the semantics</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:33"> the semantics of Prolog  including your unification</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:34"> of Prolog  including your unification backtracking  all</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:36"> backtracking  all that stuff and that's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:37"> that stuff and that's what's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:39"> what's being  loaded on the top of the page the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:40"> being  loaded on the top of the page the thing  that you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:42">that you see right here  is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:43"> see right here  is a grammar</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:45"> a grammar written in omena that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:46"> written in omena that  teaches</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:48">  teaches the browser how to understand  Prolog syntax</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:49"> the browser how to understand  Prolog syntax it</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:51"> it doesn't include things  like the special</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:52"> doesn't include things  like the special list</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:54"> list syntax you know in  Prolog but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:55"> syntax you know in  Prolog but that doesn't</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:41:57"> that doesn't matter anyway  because it's just syntactic sugar so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:41:58"> matter anyway  because it's just syntactic sugar so the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:0"> the  the important stuff is there and it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:1"> important stuff is there and it's  fairly easy to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:3">  fairly easy to grasp and gist and so on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:4"> grasp and gist and so on  so I'm</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:6">  so I'm gonna load this stuff</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:7"> gonna load this stuff and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:9"> and okay</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:10"> okay</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:12">  now</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:13">  now</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:15"> down here I can tell</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:16"> down here I can tell my Prolog</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:18"> my Prolog  translator to answer certain</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:19">  translator to answer certain Prolog</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:21"> Prolog  queries given a few</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:22">  queries given a few</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:24"> facts and rules just  like you would do in a in a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:25"> facts and rules just  like you would do in a in a real</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:27"> real Prolog  interpreter and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:28"> Prolog  interpreter and so in this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:30"> in this first example  I'm asking for all the natural numbers  given</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:31">I'm asking for all the natural numbers  given that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:33"> that zero is a natural number and  the successor of X is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:34"> zero is a natural number and  the successor of X is a natural number  if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:36"> a natural number  if X is a natural number and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:37"> X is a natural number and so if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:39"> if I  select this stuff</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:40"> I  select this stuff and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:42"> and tell it to execute  it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:43"> tell it to execute  it's saying that zero</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:45"> saying that zero is a natural  number so it's kind of small one</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:46"> is a natural  number so it's kind of small one is a  natural</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:48">natural number two is a natural number  and so on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:49"> number two is a natural number  and so on forever</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:51"> forever until I tell it I'm</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:52"> until I tell it I'm  done</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:54">  done and then this next example should</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:55"> and then this next example should</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:42:57">  be very familiar it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:42:58">  be very familiar it's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:0"> it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:1"> it's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:3"> the usual  thing that everyone does in Prolog</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:4"> the usual  thing that everyone does in Prolog in  their</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:6"> in  their first couple of sessions</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:7"> first couple of sessions</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:9"> right  it's a it's an all</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:10"> right  it's a it's an all male in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:12"> male in child world</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:13"> child world  so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:15">  so I'm asking for all the grandfather  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:16"> I'm asking for all the grandfather  and grandchild</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:18"> grandchild relationships given that  you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:19"> relationships given that  you know Abe</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:21"> know Abe is Homer's father Homer's  Lisa's father homers</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:22"> is Homer's father Homer's  Lisa's father homers</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:24"> Bart's father and  homey Homer is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:25"> Bart's father and  homey Homer is Maggie's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:27"> Maggie's father and then  there's the rule</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:28"> father and then  there's the rule for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:30"> for grandfather in  there</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:31"> grandfather in  there which yeah</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:33"> which yeah it doesn't include  women I guess</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:34"> it doesn't include  women I guess I'm</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:36"> I'm not PCs so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:37"> not PCs so when</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:39"> when I say  that you get the right answers</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:40"> I say  that you get the right answers it  enumerates</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:42"> it  enumerates all the three relationships  that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:43"> all the three relationships  that you care about</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:45"> you care about so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:46"> so quickly</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:48">to show  one</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:49">to show  one of these before</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:51"> of these before I move on to the  meaty scope</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:52"> I move on to the  meaty scope</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:54"> where</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:55"> where is this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:43:57"> is this by</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:43:58"> by the way  this is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:0"> the way  this is a wiki also and so anyone</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:1"> a wiki also and so anyone who's  interested</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:3"> who's  interested in this stuff can just open  up this webpage</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:4"> in this stuff can just open  up this webpage on their browser</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:6"> on their browser without  downloading anything and see</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:7"> without  downloading anything and see these  projects</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:9">projects try them out and make their own  project save</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:10"> try them out and make their own  project save them and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:12"> them and so on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:13"> so on so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:15"> so ok on  this page</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:16"> ok on  this page what</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:18"> what I have it's roughly a  page of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:19"> I have it's roughly a  page of code here this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:21"> code here this is logo syntax  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:22"> is logo syntax  and on</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:24"> on the left hand side you see sort</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:25"> the left hand side you see sort  of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:27">  of the BNF style rules to describe</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:28"> the BNF style rules to describe the  logo</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:30">logo syntax using left recursion and  stuff it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:31"> syntax using left recursion and  stuff it's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:33"> fairly readable and on the  right hand side there's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:34"> fairly readable and on the  right hand side there's some JavaScript</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:36"> some JavaScript  code that's being output by the semantic</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:37">code that's being output by the semantic  actions and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:39">  actions and and then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:40"> and then this is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:42"> this is the neat  part after I've defined</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:43"> the neat  part after I've defined the language and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:45">there's a little bit of runtime support  above</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:46">there's a little bit of runtime support  above the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:48"> the grammar I can read the find</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:49"> grammar I can read the find  translate code</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:51">translate code to be a function that  takes in the code that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:52"> to be a function that  takes in the code that you tell it to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:54"> you tell it to  evaluate and then passes</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:55">  evaluate and then passes to smiley</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:44:57"> to smiley my  turtle the code to evaluate and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:44:58"> my  turtle the code to evaluate and and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:0"> and it  doesn't return any useful</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:1"> it  doesn't return any useful value</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:3"> value  undefined by the way I'm returning the  undefined</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:4">undefined by the way I'm returning the  undefined string</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:6"> string because one JavaScript  tries</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:7"> because one JavaScript  tries</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:9"> to evaluate the undefined string</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:10"> to evaluate the undefined string  it's not</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:12">  it's not going to do much so if I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:13"> going to do much so if I select</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:15"> select  all this stuff and tell it to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:16">  all this stuff and tell it to evaluate</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:18"> evaluate  quickly this added</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:19">  quickly this added my</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:21"> my code added a you  know dynamically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:22"> code added a you  know dynamically added</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:24"> added a canvas elements  to this page and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:25"> a canvas elements  to this page and then</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:27"> then down here</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:28"> down here</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:30"> so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:31"> so it's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:33"> it's  also switched the language that's  understood</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:34">also switched the language that's  understood by this browser where</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:36"> by this browser where there's  a work space</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:37"> there's  a work space so I</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:39"> so I can teach it to do a  spiral which</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:40"> can teach it to do a  spiral which is code that I actually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:42"> is code that I actually  took from the Wikipedia page on</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:43">  took from the Wikipedia page on</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:45"> on logo  and then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:46"> on logo  and then if I</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:48"> if I tell it to draw a spiral  and I can</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:49"> tell it to draw a spiral  and I can call</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:51"> call  it was too quickly</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:52">  it was too quickly - up</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:45:54"> - up but I can draw</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:45:55"> but I can draw</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:0">ell hopefully I don't</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:1">ell hopefully I don't think I'm  cheating but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:3">cheating but it actually draws in  real-time</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:4"> it actually draws in  real-time and it looks</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:6"> and it looks really cute so  anyway now</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:7"> really cute so  anyway now I'm going to show you some</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:9"> I'm going to show you some  more interesting examples</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:10">  more interesting examples first</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:12"> first thing I  want to show you is that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:13"> thing I  want to show you is that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:15"> there's a  little JavaScript</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:16"> there's a  little JavaScript compiler</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:18"> compiler it's not  really a compiler that's a bit of a  misnomer</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:19">eally a compiler that's a bit of a  misnomer</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:21"> what this is in this case by</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:22"> what this is in this case by  the way I have implemented</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:24">  the way I have implemented a very</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:25"> a very nearly</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:27"> nearly  complete subset of JavaScript it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:28">  complete subset of JavaScript it's about  like</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:30"> about  like maybe 90 or 95% of the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:31"> maybe 90 or 95% of the language</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:33"> language  using all meta and I have a translator</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:34">  using all meta and I have a translator  that takes</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:36">  that takes the JavaScript program and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:37"> the JavaScript program and  outputs</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:39">  outputs some small talk and it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:40"> some small talk and it works on</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:42"> works on  top of squeak so that's pretty neat to  play with</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:43">top of squeak so that's pretty neat to  play with but I don't have time</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:45"> but I don't have time to show  that today and I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:46"> to show  that today and I have a couple other</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:48"> have a couple other  backends for that but in this case what</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:49">  backends for that but in this case what  I have is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:51">  I have is a JavaScript parser written in  nomada</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:52"> a JavaScript parser written in  nomada that's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:54"> that's about 120 140</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:55"> about 120 140 lines of  code</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:46:57">code I don't remember exactly what it is  and then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:46:58"> I don't remember exactly what it is  and then after that I</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:0"> after that I have a translator</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:1"> have a translator  that pattern</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:3">that pattern matches on the parse trees  that I generate</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:4"> matches on the parse trees  that I generate and outputs</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:6"> and outputs the  JavaScript code again so it's sort of  the identity</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:7">JavaScript code again so it's sort of  the identity transformation</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:9"> transformation on  JavaScript which on its own is not</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:10"> on  JavaScript which on its own is not very  interesting</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:12">interesting but the neat thing about it  is that once you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:13"> but the neat thing about it  is that once you have something</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:15"> have something like  that you can easily because Oh Matta is  object-oriented</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:16">that you can easily because Oh Matta is  object-oriented you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:18"> you can inherit from  these grammars and override</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:19"> can inherit from  these grammars and override certain</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:21"> certain  rules for instance if you want to add</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:22">rules for instance if you want to add a  new kind of statement</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:24">new kind of statement you override the  statement rule and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:25"> you override the  statement rule and uh and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:27"> uh and add some new  construct</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:28"> add some new  construct so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:30"> so I'm gonna skip</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:31"> I'm gonna skip over that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:33"> over that  example but you you guys get the idea so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:34">example but you you guys get the idea so  far right okay</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:36">  far right okay and of course</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:37"> and of course O'Meara</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:39"> O'Meara is  implemented in itself</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:40"> is  implemented in itself</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:42"> so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:43"> so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:45"> in a very  similar style</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:46"> in a very  similar style to that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:48"> to that JavaScript  translator that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:49"> JavaScript  translator that I just showed you so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:51"> I just showed you so  this is the parser for Oh Mehta and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:52">this is the parser for Oh Mehta and  underneath</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:54">  underneath is the code generator which  just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:55"> is the code generator which  just translates</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:47:57"> translates the parse trees to  JavaScript and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:47:58"> the parse trees to  JavaScript and I have</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:0"> I have a little bit of a  library that I wrote that's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:1"> a little bit of a  library that I wrote that's maybe</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:3"> maybe  something like 50 lines of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:4">something like 50 lines of code or  whatever that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:6">whatever that supports the semantics of  Oh meta in JavaScript</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:7"> supports the semantics of  Oh meta in JavaScript</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:9"> and that's the way  a bootstrap Oh</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:10"> and that's the way  a bootstrap Oh meta</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:12">you  you just implement</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:13">you  you just implement a very</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:15"> a very minimal set of  semantics as a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:16"> minimal set of  semantics as a library in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:18"> library in that host  language and then I do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:19"> that host  language and then I do the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:21"> the parsing and  cogeneration in no</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:22"> parsing and  cogeneration in no matter but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:24"> matter but one  interesting thing here</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:25"> one  interesting thing here is that you don't</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:27"> is that you don't  have to do this you know very direct</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:28">have to do this you know very direct  two-step</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:30">  two-step process you can do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:31"> process you can do some more  interesting</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:33">interesting things with it so for  instance the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:34"> things with it so for  instance the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:36"> O meta translator is just  taking a parse tree and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:37"> O meta translator is just  taking a parse tree and outputting</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:39"> outputting the  JavaScript but my parser is not  extremely</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:40">JavaScript but my parser is not  extremely smart</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:42"> smart for instance if you if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:43"> for instance if you if  you have nested</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:45">  you have nested or expressions you know</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:46"> or expressions you know  while you're doing your</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:48">hile you're doing your pattern matching  as you often do if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:49"> pattern matching  as you often do if I use parentheses you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:51"> I use parentheses you  know I say X or Y or</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:52">  know I say X or Y or Z</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:54"> Z that's going to  generate two</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:55"> that's going to  generate two</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:48:57"> or operations you know and  the or operation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:48:58"> or operations you know and  the or operation no matter has</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:0"> no matter has to  remember the position that you're at so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:1">remember the position that you're at so  that it can backtrack</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:3">that it can backtrack properly and so on  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:4"> properly and so on  and that's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:6"> that's sort of wasteful so one thing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:7"> sort of wasteful so one thing  that I did</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:9">  that I did</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:10"> that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:12"> that was very straightforward  was</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:13"> was very straightforward  was I implemented</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:15"> I implemented an optimal optimus</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:16"> an optimal optimus  asian framework</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:18">  asian framework for all meta parse trees  in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:19"> for all meta parse trees  in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:21"> nomada itself after I had the stuff</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:22"> nomada itself after I had the stuff  working and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:24">  working and so what you see on top here  is a grammar</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:25"> so what you see on top here  is a grammar that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:27"> that pattern matches on a  parse tree</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:28"> pattern matches on a  parse tree for a matter and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:30"> for a matter and by looking  at this you can see how little</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:31"> by looking  at this you can see how little you have  to implement</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:33">to implement in order to have a language  like cometa it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:34"> in order to have a language  like cometa it's very similar</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:36"> very similar to Brian  for its pegs you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:37"> to Brian  for its pegs you know</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:39"> know you only have or  and cleani</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:40"> you only have or  and cleani star</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:42"> star cleany plus this is  assignment</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:43"> cleany plus this is  assignment which is used</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:45"> which is used for binding  expressions to names</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:46"> for binding  expressions to names there's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:48"> there's a knot  operation look</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:49"> a knot  operation look ahead and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:51"> ahead and so on so it's  fairly straightforward anyway</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:52"> so on so it's  fairly straightforward anyway</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:54"> this is  kind of like a visitor for a meta</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:55"> this is  kind of like a visitor for a meta parse  trees</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:49:57"> parse  trees and on its own</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:49:58"> and on its own it's not very</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:0"> it's not very  useful but then down here what I'm doing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:1">useful but then down here what I'm doing  is I'm ism</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:3">  is I'm ism inheriting this visitor and  overriding</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:4"> inheriting this visitor and  overriding the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:6"> the and and orals so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:7"> and and orals so that  when I have</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:9"> that  when I have nesting you know if I have  an end</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:10"> nesting you know if I have  an end that has an</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:12"> that has an end as an argument I  can pull out</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:13"> end as an argument I  can pull out the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:15"> the parts of that end</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:16"> parts of that end into</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:18"> into  the outer end and the semantics is going  to be</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:19">the outer end and the semantics is going  to be the same except</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:21"> the same except it's going to be  more efficient because I only have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:22"> it's going to be  more efficient because I only have you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:24"> you  know to implement that one operation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:25">  know to implement that one operation  and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:27">  and and when I implemented</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:28"> and when I implemented this the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:30"> this the the  Oh manage is implementation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:31"> the  Oh manage is implementation became I  think</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:33"> became I  think 30 percent faster which was pretty</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:34"> 30 percent faster which was pretty  neat for very</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:36">  neat for very minimal effort</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:37"> minimal effort</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:39"> anyway oh  yeah</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:40"> anyway oh  yeah</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:42"> and the last thing I want to show  you here before I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:43"> and the last thing I want to show  you here before I</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:45"> show the Dan</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:46"> show the Dan stuff</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:48"> stuff is  so if you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:49"> is  so if you if you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:51"> if you end up taking the time  to take a look to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:52"> end up taking the time  to take a look to look at this stuff  online</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:54"> look at this stuff  online I encourage you to look at this  project</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:55"> I encourage you to look at this  project it's called meta</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:50:57"> it's called meta to t oo which  is a pun</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:50:58"> to t oo which  is a pun on you know</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:0"> on you know the meta to which  had</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:1"> the meta to which  had the Roman numeral</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:3"> the Roman numeral two that I told  you about before</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:4"> two that I told  you about before and what</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:6"> and what this is is a  language that's very</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:7"> this is is a  language that's very close to a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:9"> close to a meta  implemented entirely</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:10"> meta  implemented entirely in this little</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:12"> in this little  project and so at first this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:13">  project and so at first this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:15"> this  javascript object that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:16"> this  javascript object that you see up here  is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:18"> you see up here  is a is the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:19"> a is the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:21"> library like object that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:22"> library like object that  implements all</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:24">implements all of the semantics that you  need for doing the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:25"> of the semantics that you  need for doing the parsing and pattern</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:27"> parsing and pattern  matching and then down here</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:28">  matching and then down here what I have</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:30"> what I have  is the parser for this language</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:31">  is the parser for this language written</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:33"> written  in know meta and then I have a couple of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:34">in know meta and then I have a couple of  examples</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:36">  examples you know with with</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:37"> you know with with arithmetic</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:39"> arithmetic  expressions and so on but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:40">  expressions and so on but then of course  that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:42"> then of course  that is not sufficient to do  bootstrapping</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:43"> is not sufficient to do  bootstrapping</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:45"> but what you really need  to do is once</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:46"> but what you really need  to do is once you have the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:48"> you have the the Oh Matt  alike language working</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:49"> the Oh Matt  alike language working you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:51"> you want to write  that you want to implement that guy in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:52">that you want to implement that guy in  itself which</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:54">  itself which is what I do down</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:55"> is what I do down here  and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:51:57"> here  and you can see it's a little bit</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:51:58"> you can see it's a little bit uglier  than no</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:0"> uglier  than no matter particularly because the  semantic</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:1"> matter particularly because the  semantic actions have</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:3"> actions have to be enclosed in  these funny</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:4"> to be enclosed in  these funny characters and so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:6"> characters and so on but I  did that so that I wouldn't</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:7"> on but I  did that so that I wouldn't have to  implement</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:9"> have to  implement the JavaScript parser as part</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:10"> the JavaScript parser as part  of this thing right</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:12">of this thing right so I can just  blindly consume the JavaScript</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:13">blindly consume the JavaScript and  output</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:15"> and  output it in the translated code</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:16"> it in the translated code so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:18"> so  anyway that's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:19">  anyway that's the implementation</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:21"> the implementation of that  and you can compile the compiler with</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:22">and you can compile the compiler with  the original</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:24">e original compiler that I wrote with  no meta and it works</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:25"> compiler that I wrote with  no meta and it works and then</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:27"> and then the thing  that really tests it later</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:28"> the thing  that really tests it later on is if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:30"> on is if you  take the the version</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:31"> you  take the the version of the compiler</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:33"> of the compiler  that was generated from the code up</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:34">that was generated from the code up here  by using the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:36"> here  by using the no matter you know compiler</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:37"> no matter you know compiler</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:39">  if you take that and and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:40">  if you take that and and compile it</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:42"> compile it with  itself and replace the thing you're</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:43">self and replace the thing you're  using with</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:45">  using with that result and it still  works down</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:46"> that result and it still  works down here you know you're</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:48"> here you know you're you're  good and that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:49"> you're  good and that kind of works</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:51"> kind of works so it's a  it's a neat little example of  bootstrapping</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:52">it's a neat little example of  bootstrapping</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:54"> if you want to take a look</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:55"> if you want to take a look  at that later on</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:52:57">  at that later on so I think</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:52:58"> so I think oh yeah</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:0"> oh yeah one  less thing that I want to show here</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:1"> one  less thing that I want to show here and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:3"> and  take a quick look at</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:4">  take a quick look at this JavaScript</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:6"> this JavaScript  doesn't have multi-line string</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:7">  doesn't have multi-line string literals  right</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:9"> literals  right but if you look at this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:10"> but if you look at this I'm  actually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:12"> I'm  actually using one right here it looks  very Python</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:13"> using one right here it looks  very Python esque and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:15"> esque and the reason why I  can do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:16"> the reason why I  can do that is because</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:18"> that is because you know this  translate code thing my</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:19"> you know this  translate code thing my JavaScript</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:21">doesn't have to be JavaScript right I  have that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:22">doesn't have to be JavaScript right I  have that intermediate</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:24"> intermediate thing the  JavaScript parser and and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:25"> thing the  JavaScript parser and and translator</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:27"> translator  that I showed you before and I can  easily inherit</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:28">that I showed you before and I can  easily inherit</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:30"> from that and add new  kinds</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:31"> from that and add new  kinds of things so that was</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:33"> of things so that was very  straightforward and the the other neat  thing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:34">traightforward and the the other neat  thing about having</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:36"> about having things having these  languages implemented</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:37"> things having these  languages implemented and no matter</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:39"> and no matter is  that there's a thing called foreign rule</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:40">that there's a thing called foreign rule  invocation</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:42">  invocation that allows a grammar to lend  its</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:43"> that allows a grammar to lend  its input stream</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:45"> input stream to another grammar  temporarily and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:46"> to another grammar  temporarily and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:48"> it's an it's an  alternative to inheritance</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:49"> it's an it's an  alternative to inheritance for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:51"> for instance  that you may have noticed that the  language</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:52">that you may have noticed that the  language that I'm using in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:54"> that I'm using in this  workspace is not just JavaScript and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:55">workspace is not just JavaScript and  it's not just no</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:53:57">it's not just no matter it's kind of a  mash-up of these two languages</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:53:58"> matter it's kind of a  mash-up of these two languages and if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:0"> and if  you wanted to implement that with single</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:1">you wanted to implement that with single  inheritance</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:3">  inheritance you would have to inherit  from one</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:4"> you would have to inherit  from one of these translators</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:6"> of these translators and then  implement the functionality</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:7"> and then  implement the functionality of the other  translator</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:9"> of the other  translator which would be very</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:10"> which would be very annoying</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:12"> annoying  to have to do and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:13">  to have to do and multiple</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:15"> multiple inheritance  is clearly a bad idea I'm not going</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:16"> inheritance  is clearly a bad idea I'm not going to  go into that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:18"> to  go into that because of all the you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:19"> because of all the you know  complications</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:21"> know  complications and and so on and so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:22"> and and so on and so with</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:24"> with  foreign rule invocation I can just have  one grammar</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:25">foreign rule invocation I can just have  one grammar that doesn't</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:27"> that doesn't inherit from  either if I don't want to and just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:28"> inherit from  either if I don't want to and just says  try</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:30"> says  try parsing my input as a no matter</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:31"> parsing my input as a no matter  grammar and if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:33">grammar and if that doesn't work try  parsing my input as a JavaScript</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:34">parsing my input as a JavaScript  statement or</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:36">  statement or expression or whatever  sorry</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:37"> expression or whatever  sorry</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:39"> punch line yes okay</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:40"> punch line yes okay so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:42"> so what you're  looking</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:43"> what you're  looking at here is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:45"> at here is part</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:46"> part of my translator</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:48"> of my translator  for the Niall language that Dan was  talking</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:49">for the Niall language that Dan was  talking about so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:51"> about so the stuff on top</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:52"> the stuff on top  implements is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:54">implements is a is a grammar that on its  own implements</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:55"> a is a grammar that on its  own implements the offside rule you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:54:57"> the offside rule you know  indentation as block structure that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:54:58"> know  indentation as block structure that you  see in Python</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:0">see in Python and Haskell and so on a  neat thing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:1"> and Haskell and so on a  neat thing about that is that that's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:3"> about that is that that's  modularized away from</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:4">  modularized away from whatever language</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:6"> whatever language  that you're implementing so all this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:7">that you're implementing so all this  stuff like</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:9">  stuff like a keeping track of a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:10"> a keeping track of a stack of  indentation levels</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:12"> stack of  indentation levels and so on that can be  done</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:13"> and so on that can be  done in that one grammar</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:15"> in that one grammar and my</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:16"> and my my</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:18"> my Nile  parser which is down here</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:19"> Nile  parser which is down here also</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:21"> also written  in no matter just inherits</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:22"> written  in no matter just inherits from that guy</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:24"> from that guy  and can just say you know</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:25">  and can just say you know I I want</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:27"> I I want to I  want</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:28"> to I  want to indent</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:30"> to indent I don't</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:31"> I don't know</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:33"> know that's  identifier anyway</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:34"> that's  identifier anyway there's there's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:36"> there's there's  there's a bunch of indentation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:37">  there's a bunch of indentation code</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:39"> code ah  here we go so I want to I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:40"> ah  here we go so I want to I want</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:42"> want to tab  over here and then there are these</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:43"> to tab  over here and then there are these funny  unicode</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:45"> funny  unicode characters that dan is very fond</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:46"> characters that dan is very fond  of and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:48">  of and so on so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:49"> so on so this is the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:51"> this is the the parser  part of the implementation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:52"> the parser  part of the implementation of Dan's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:54"> of Dan's  thing and there's also</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:55">  thing and there's also a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:55:57"> a type checker  and code generator that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:55:58"> type checker  and code generator that are written</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:0"> are written by  pattern matching on those</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:1"> by  pattern matching on those data</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:3">structures that I'm creating on the  right hand side and the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:4">structures that I'm creating on the  right hand side and the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:6"> so it's a it's a  fairly you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:7"> so it's a it's a  fairly you know that one</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:9"> know that one of the cool  things about Dan's language is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:10"> of the cool  things about Dan's language is that in  addition</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:12"> that in  addition to you know types being used</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:13"> to you know types being used  for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:15">  for making sure that you don't get  things</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:16"> making sure that you don't get  things wrong the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:18"> wrong the the types matter a lot</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:19"> the types matter a lot  for efficient</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:21">for efficient code generation for Niall  and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:22"> code generation for Niall  and it</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:24"> it turned out to be relatively  straightforward</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:25"> turned out to be relatively  straightforward to keep track</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:27"> to keep track of types  in these grammars since</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:28"> of types  in these grammars since you know</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:30"> you know the  grammars are kind of like class</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:31"> the  grammars are kind of like class grammar</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:33"> grammar  no matter is pretty much like a class</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:34">no matter is pretty much like a class in  an object-oriented</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:36">an object-oriented language you can have  state associated</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:37"> language you can have  state associated with running instances</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:39"> with running instances  of that grammar and then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:40">  of that grammar and then you can keep  the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:42"> you can keep  the symbol table on there and and so on  and in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:43"> symbol table on there and and so on  and in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:45"> do proper type checking so I</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:46"> do proper type checking so I  think I'm</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:48">  think I'm gonna stop here sorry if I ran  a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:49"> gonna stop here sorry if I ran  a little long and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:56:51"> little long and SM is gonna</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:56:52"> SM is gonna</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:58:36">nd just to clarify pegs</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:58:37">nd just to clarify pegs on their</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:58:39"> on their own  don't support left recursion but there's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:58:40">don't support left recursion but there's  a cool trick that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:58:42">a cool trick that you can do with the  memo table that's used by packrat</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:58:43"> you can do with the  memo table that's used by packrat  parsers</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:58:45">  parsers I wrote a paper about that you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:58:46"> I wrote a paper about that you  guys Rangers</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:58:48">  guys Rangers</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:58:58">you have all these</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:58:57">you have all these</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:7">right so right</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:6">right so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:10"> now I don't have a great  answer to that I try it out and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:9"> right now I don't have a great  answer to that I try</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:13">  hopefully it works but we're</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:12"> it out and  hopefully it works but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:16"> hoping that  at some point</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:15"> we're hoping that  at</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:19"> soon we're going to be  able to use the princess and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:18"> some point soon we're going to be  able to use the princess</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:22">programs that then has I kind of think  of them as</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:21"> and I'll  programs that then has I kind</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:25"> the meaning of the thing that  I care about and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:24"> of think  of them as the meaning of the thing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:28"> it would be really  great to have an automatic way</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:27">I care about and it would be really  great to have an automatic</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:31"> to check  the meaning against it's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:30"> way to check  the meaning against</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:34"> true okay</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:33"> it's true okay</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:37">  we can discuss it offline</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:36">  we can discuss</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="0:59:40"> you don't need  this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="0:59:39"> it offline you don't need  this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:10">please feel free to leave us</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:0:54">there are</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:13">time be another ten minutes  I'm</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:9">please feel</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:16"> Kazama I work at viewpoints as well  as</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:12"> free to leave us be all the  time be another ten minutes</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:19"> um understood at UCLA actually called  my father but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:15">  I'm Kazama I work at viewpoints</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:22"> he said you should be out  party</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:18"> as well  as um understood at UCLA actually</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:25"></subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:21"> called  my father but he said you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:28"> so what part of all the interest</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:24"> should be out  party</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:31">is I'm sure you have seen an imperative  as well as declarative</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:27"> so what part</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:34"> methodologies to  do programming imperative</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:30"> of all the interest  is I'm sure you have seen an imperative</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:37"> is how  implementations are darling</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:33">  as well as declarative methodologies to  do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:40">  declarative is we've seen Prolog  language</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:36"> programming imperative is how  implementations</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:43"> you know its meanings they're  compact</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:39"> are darling  declarative is we've seen</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:46">  they're very understandable</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:42"> Prolog  language you know its meanings they're  compact</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:49"> but we need  search in order to to execute</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:45">  they're very understandable</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:52"> them so  that the often not practical part</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:48"> but we need  search in order to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:55">what your interests are here to save  codes as well as to add</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:51"> to execute them so  that the often not practical part</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:1:58">  understandability to problems</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:54">what your interests are here to save  codes as</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:1"> is is  there a way to kind of combine both at</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:1:57"> well as to add  understandability to problems</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:4">he same time which is not very common  today this is a famous quote</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:0"> is is  there a way to kind of combine</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:7"> that I made  recently that the natural</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:3"> both at  the same time which is not very common  today this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:10"> combination of  the claritin predators is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:6"> is a famous quote that I made  recently that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:13"> missing a  couple of methodologies</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:9"> the natural combination of  the claritin</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:16"> that we kind of  studied in this direction is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:12"> predators is missing a  couple</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:19"> one is I'm  just I'm just gonna quickly go</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:15"> of methodologies that we kind of  studied in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:22"> over it  but basically if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:18"> this direction is one is I'm  just I'm just gonna quickly</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:25"> you add a layer</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:21"> go over it  but basically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:28"> of  logic on top of your your your</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:24"> if you add a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:31"> languages  to support search basically</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:27"> layer of  logic on top of your</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:34"> your  heuristic search you can do imperative</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:30"> your your languages  to support search</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:37">programming with a little bit of  overhead if you're always willing</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:33"> basically your  heuristic search you can do</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:40"> to add  optimizations so in the in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:36">programming with a little bit of  overhead if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:43"> the presence  of multiple methods if there's a if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:39"> you're always willing to add  optimizations so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:46">there's an optimization that always  tells you based on</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:42"> in the in the presence  of multiple methods if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:49"> the state which  method is the is the good method to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:45">there's an optimization that always  tells</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:52">so you always do this check to to find  out the different</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:48"> you based on the state which  method is the is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:55"> alternatives then you  have this lovely the overhead</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:51"> the good method to take  so you always do this check to to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:2:58"> of  checking to do your normal imperative  but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:54">ut the different alternatives then you  have this lovely</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:1"> when you do want when you do have  the you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:2:57"> the overhead of  checking to do your normal</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:4"> know leverage to do kind</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:0"> imperative  but when you do want when you do have</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:7"> of  search you can you have the option</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:3">  the you know leverage</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:10"> to  say well explore possibilities and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:6"> to do kind of  search you can you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:13"> find  the best best scenario to do so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:9"> have the option to  say well explore possibilities</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:16"> this is  what this this prodigies are all about  you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:12"> and find  the best best scenario to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:19"> know allows you to kind of separate  the optimizations and here</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:15"> do so this is  what this this prodigies are</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:22"> is the  from from the actual implementations the  actions</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:18"> all about  you know allows you to kind of separate  the optimizations</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:25"> that you see here to satisfy the  goals so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:21"> and here is the  from from the actual implementations</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:28"> implements that the budget  programs really</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:24"> the  actions that you see here to satisfy the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:31"> small they're really  cute and slow but there</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:27">  goals so implements that the budget  programs</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:34"> have this nice  way that you can add</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:30"> really small they're really  cute and slow</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:37"> for example this  chess program that was about</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:33"> but there have this nice  way that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:40"> three  hundred lines of code that even included  some</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:36"> you can add for example this  chess program</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:43"> text ASCII art graphics</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:39"> that was about three  hundred lines of code that even</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:46"> where you  could just actually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:42"> included  some text ASCII</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:49"> add any arbitrary  number of heuristics that say</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:45"> art graphics where</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:52"> based on  the the states that you explore  basically</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:48"> you  could just actually add any arbitrary  number of heuristics</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:55"> heuristics tell you which one  is the better one to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:51"> that say based on  the the states that you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:3:58"> do and then these  heuristics tell</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:54"> explore  basically heuristics tell you which one</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:1"> you that you know it's  better to take a move when you actually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:3:57">is the better one to do and then these  heuristics</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:4">  capture the opponent's piece then try  not</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:0"> tell you that you know it's  better to take a move</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:7"> to get captures we're adding some  numeric values so you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:3"> when you actually  capture the opponent's piece then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:10"> can basically  reorder the you know alternatives</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:6"> try  not to get captures we're adding some  numeric</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:13"> but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:9"> values so you can basically  reorder</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:16">  another more serious one was you know</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:12"> the you know alternatives</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:19"> in  compilers need to do register  allocations</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:15"> but  another more serious one</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:22"> which is you have registers  and you have variables</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:18"> was you know in  compilers need to do register</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:25"> in the program  these variables the compiler needs to  decide</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:21">  allocations which is you have registers</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:28"> where they gonna be in on the  registers and this has</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:24">and you have variables in the program  these variables the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:31"> happens to be an  NP complete problem this hard problem</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:27">decide where they gonna be in on the  registers and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:34">you want to do it optimally and then  it's this is nice way</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:30"> this has happens to be an  NP complete problem this hard</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:37"> because you know  you just allow a high-level</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:33"> problem if  you want to do it optimally and then  it's this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:40"> goal that  that kind of this this is using</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:36"> is nice way because you know  you just allow</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:43">methodology in Smalltalk program that  you just expressed</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:39"> a high-level goal that  that kind of this this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:46"> the goal that all  variables want to be you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:42"> is using  methodology in Smalltalk program that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:49"> know assigned  and you then you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:45">you just expressed the goal that all  variables want</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:52"> have you tell it what  what actions</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:48"> to be you know assigned  and you then</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:55"> are taken when you're doing  this this task which is usually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:51"> you have you tell it what  what</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:4:58">  assigning particular register with the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:54"> actions are taken when you're doing  this this task</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:1">variable or deciding to spill or split  and then</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:4:57"> which is usually  assigning particular</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:4"> you define the optimizations on  top of this that says based</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:0"> register with the  variable or deciding to spill or split</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:7"> on whatever  state you are if you have room for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:3">  and then you define the optimizations on  top of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:10"> the  next variable then take that particular  method if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:6"> this that says based on whatever  state you are if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:13"> you have otherwise take the  spill method</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:9"> you have room for the  next variable then take that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:16"> you know it just in has a  layer on top of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:12"> particular  method if you have otherwise take the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:19"> your normal logic you  can express that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:15">spill method you know it just in has a  layer</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:22"> in more declarative way</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:18"> on top of your normal logic you  can</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:25">  but the problem with here is success as</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:21"> express that in more</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:28">you know is that if you're implementing  your own search it's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:24"> declarative way  but the problem with</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:31">interactable  so recent</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:27"> here is success as  you know is that if you're implementing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:34"> or studies  then I'm going to show now is more</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:30">your own search it's often becomes  interactable  so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:37"> based  on boolean satisfiability</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:33"> recent or studies  then I'm going to show</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:40"> sad solvers  constraint solving</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:36"> now is more based  on boolean</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:43"> technologies which  are recently been shown that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:39"> satisfiability sad solvers  constraint</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:46"> it's much  you know it's a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:42"> solving technologies which  are recently</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:49"> scale much better so our  Britta more recent</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:45"> been shown that it's much  you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:52"> stuff is not based on  the search that we come up with  ourselves but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:48"> know it's a scale much better so our  Britta</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:55"> based kind of plugging or  whatever</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:51"> more recent stuff is not based on  the search that we come</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:5:58"> a tool that we have two  external tools that are</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:54"> up with  ourselves but based kind of plugging</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:1"> really good at  solving problems using sad solving  technologies</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:5:57">whatever a tool that we have two  external tools</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:4"> as we will see that they  have their</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:0"> that are really good at  solving problems using sad</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:7"> own problems that they're  kind of not very and they're</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:3"> solving  technologies as we will see that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:10"> not nice to  adding user specific</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:6">have their own problems that they're  kind of not very and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:13"> heuristics so  eventually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:9"> they're not nice to  adding user</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:16"> we want some combination of  the two two ways</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:12"> specific heuristics so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:19"> the heuristic searching  or sad solving</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:15">  eventually we want some combination of  the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:22"> technologies to rethink  that you know might answer</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:18"> two two ways the heuristic searching  or sad</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:25"> our problem  so this this project</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:21"> solving technologies to rethink  that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:28"> is about adding  syntactic sugars to programming</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:24"> you know might answer our problem  so this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:31">languages in this case I'm showing you  examples from an</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:27"> this project is about adding  syntactic sugars</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:34"> extension of Java  language where we allowing</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:30"> to programming  languages in this case I'm showing you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:37"> first-order  logic expressions like this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:33">examples from an extension of Java  language where</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:40"> or you know  set comprehension stuff like this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:36"> we allowing first-order  logic expressions</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:43"> this  is from a lloyd language actually</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:39"> like this or you know  set comprehension stuff</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:46"> it's a  model object modeling language so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:42"> like this this  is from a lloyd</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:49"> we we  allow these kind of expressions in the  language</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:45"> language actually it's a  model object modeling language</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:52"> but they serve two purposes one  is that we can</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:48"> so we we  allow these kind</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:55"> easily do sugar these two  low-level syntax</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:51"> of expressions in the  language but they serve two purposes one</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:6:58"> of the program so these  are actually runnable so if I</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:54">  is that we can easily do sugar these two  low-level</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:1"> but this  is actually a part of the code</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:6:57"> syntax of the program so these  are actually</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:4"> of the  binary tree and if I actually  instantiate</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:0"> runnable so if I but this  is actually</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:7"> an object and I run it you  know because</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:3"> a part of the code of the  binary tree and</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:10"> it's gonna be compiled to a  low-level code is going to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:6"> if I actually  instantiate an object and I run it</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:13"> be runnable  even though it's compact but that's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:9"> you  know because it's gonna be compiled to a  low-level</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:16">the only thing that we're interested to  save lines of code we're</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:12"> code is going to be runnable  even though it's compact but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:19"> also interested  in having a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:15"> that's not  the only thing that we're interested to  save lines</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:22"> runnable executed runnable  meanings meanings that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:18"> of code we're also interested  in having</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:25"> are actually  executable you see when we say</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:21"> a runnable executed runnable  meanings</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:28"> meanings  we mean high-level expressions like this  that says</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:24"> meanings that are actually  executable you see when</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:31"> I want a graph that is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:27"> we say meanings  we mean high-level expressions</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:34"> a  cyclic then this is the meaning of a  cyclic</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:30"> like this  that says I want</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:37"> that there's no note that that  kind of points back to itself right</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:33"> a graph that is a  cyclic then this is the meaning</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:40">nice to be able to without any  implementation</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:36">cyclic that there's no note that that  kind of points</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:43">execute this  meaning that not</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:39"> back to itself right it's  nice to be able to without</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:46"> just running in the  program that kind of using</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:42">implementation I should be able to  execute this  meaning</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:49">constraint solving technology to  actually find a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:45"> that not just running in the  program that kind</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:52"> satisfying state for  that particular</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:48"> of using some  constraint solving technology to  actually</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:55"> constraint so so that's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:51"> find a satisfying state for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:7:58">what I'm saying executable in terms of  we can use some</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:54">  that particular constraint so so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:1"> external tool to get to  what state that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:7:57"> that's  what I'm saying executable in terms of  we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:4"> we're happy without  actually any implementations now we're  going to use</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:0"> can use some external tool to get</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:7"> that for two things one</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:3">what state that we're happy without  actually any implementations</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:10">the software reliability I'm showing you  an</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:6"> now we're  going to use that for two</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:13"> implementation of the bubble sort for  in this this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:9"> things one is  the software reliability I'm showing you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:16"> extension that is pretty  routine it's a bubble</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:12">  an implementation of the bubble sort for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:19"> sort routine but  we see that you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:15">in this this extension that is pretty  routine</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:22"> know this is in the in  light of you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:18"> it's a bubble sort routine but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:25"> know program annotations  you've seen in a Java modeling language</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:21">we see that you know this is in the in  light of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:28">  and others where you just annotate the  program</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:24"> you know program annotations  you've seen in a Java</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:31"> with meanings basically which  says</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:27"> modeling language  and others where you just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:34"> this particular method is  accomplishing this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:30"> annotate the  program with meanings basically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:37"> this expression this  is followed by that insurance</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:33"> which  says this particular method is  accomplishing</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:40"> clause  that says the job of the sort method is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:36"> this this expression this  is followed</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:43">that it's going to find some value  that's a permutation</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:39"> by that insurance clause  that says the job of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:46"> of the the old alts  all</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:42"> the sort method is  that it's going to find some value</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:49"> this and it's gonna be a sorted this  is something</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:45">  that's a permutation of the the old alts</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:52"> that we can automatically  insert instrument in the in the compiled</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:48">  all this and it's gonna be a sorted</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:55">version so that if when method of  methods are</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:51">is something that we can automatically  insert instrument</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:8:58"> done these constraints of  these</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:54"> in the in the compiled  version so that if when method of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:1"> expression is going to be  evaluated and if</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:8:57">  methods are done these constraints</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:4"> they happen to be false  that means the method was</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:0">these expression is going to be  evaluated</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:7"> faulty method  was buggy or if they</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:3"> and if they happen to be false  that means the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:10"> if they even  happened to have some kind of runtime</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:6"> method was faulty method  was buggy or if</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:13">  failure like a division by zero that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:9"> they if they even  happened to have some kind</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:16">  it's not easily found we can kind</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:12"> of runtime  failure like a division by</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:19"> of  catch that exception and use the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:15"> zero that  it's not easily found we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:22"> exec  use these efficacious as</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:18"> can kind of  catch that exception and use</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:25"> kind of a  fallback as an alternative</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:21"> the exec  use these efficacious</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:28"> that the  method didn't work but we can have an</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:24"> as kind of a  fallback as an</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:31">  alternative to to try what accomplish</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:27"> alternative that the  method didn't work but</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:34">  what we want and in this case we</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:30"> we can have an  alternative to to try</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:37"> can use  we kind of translate this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:33"> what accomplish  what we want and in this case</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:40"> expression  into the synthetic the logic syntax</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:36"> we can use  we kind</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:43">where we can can call an external tool  to to find basically</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:39"> of translate this expression  into the synthetic</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:46"> sort this list</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:42"> the logic syntax  where we can can call an external tool</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:49">so it's a live but bigger</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:45">  to to find basically sort this list</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:52"> example is  this an implementation of red-black</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:48">so it's a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:55"> tree  that also have annotations for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:51"> live but bigger example is  this an implementation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:9:58"> the  insert and delete methods basically</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:54"> of red-black tree  that also have annotations</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:1">saying on an insert insert you just have  one</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:9:57"> for the  insert and delete methods basically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:4"> one you note added to the set of the  notes and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:0">  saying on an insert insert you just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:7"> I delete you have one less and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:3"> have  one one you note added to the set of the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:10">  basically assuming they have some</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:6">  notes and I delete you have one less</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:13">implementation that's not reliable you  can just you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:9"> and  basically assuming</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:16"> know use this the  annotations to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:12"> they have some some  implementation that's not reliable</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:19"> accomplish what what they  do actually you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:15"> you  can just you know use this the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:22"> can think of this so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:18">  annotations to accomplish what what they  do actually</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:25"> I  found the implementation typically about  five</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:21"> you can think of this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:28"> six hundred lines of code or three  hundred lines of code of Java</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:24"> so I  found the implementation typically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:31"> because of  a lot of corner cases that these balance</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:27"> about  five six hundred lines of code or three  hundred</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:34">  trees need to satisfy this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:30"> lines of code of Java because of  a lot of corner</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:37"> you can think  of it as a kind of a minimalistic</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:33"> cases that these balance  trees need to satisfy</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:40">  runnable implementation as you will it's</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:36"> this you can think  of it as a kind of a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:43">  like an interface for for the whoever  wants</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:39"> minimalistic  runnable implementation as</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:46"> to implement it but the neat thing  that this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:42"> you will it's  like an interface for for</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:49"> has that the interfaces don't  have its runnable so you can have</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:45"> the whoever  wants to implement it but the neat thing  that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:52">actually write what these two methods  are gonna be</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:48"> this has that the interfaces don't  have its runnable</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:55"> in the future but because  you have annotated</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:51"> so you can have  actually write what these two methods</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:10:58"> them actually you can  we can test them and run them because</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:54">  are gonna be in the future but because</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:1">  yeah you know we have that underlying</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:10:57">you have annotated them actually you can  we can test them</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:4">  reasoning system so that you actually  without</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:0"> and run them because  yeah you know we</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:7"> the implementation can test your  program</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:3"> have that underlying  reasoning system so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:10"> interface to to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:6"> that you actually  without the implementation can test your</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:13"> move around  another so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:9">  program interface to</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:16"> this is the last thing I'm  showing is that you can</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:12"> to move around  another</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:19"> always  intentionally use this fallback</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:15"> so this is the last thing I'm  showing is that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:22"> system  the use of fallback</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:18"> you can always  intentionally use</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:25"> when you want to do  something bit clearer deeply you don't  you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:21"> this fallback system  the use of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:28"> don't even want to implement  something but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:24"> fallback when you want to do  something bit clearer</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:31"> you know you can use the  constraint solving technology that kind  of</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:27"> deeply you don't  you don't even want to implement</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:34"> embedded in your in your language to  accomplish</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:30">something but you know you can use the  constraint solving technology</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:37"> something that's kind of  cumbersome</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:33"> that kind  of embedded in your in your language</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:40"> so in this case for example  this is a it's a a</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:36"> to  accomplish something that's kind of</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:43"> GUI example where  this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:39">cumbersome so in this case for example  this is a it's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:46"> is very simple a user just puts the  dots on the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:42"> a a GUI</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:49"> screen you see these four  dots are putting in</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:45"> example where  this is very simple a user just puts</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:52"> screen without a  problem so the the the job of this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:48">dots on the screen you see these four  dots are</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:55">  particular method the ad body is very  trivial</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:51"> putting in screen without a  problem so the the the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:11:58"> it's just you know draws the dot  and this box</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:54"> job of this  particular method the ad body is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:1"> shows that  there's this restriction</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:11:57"> very  trivial it's just you know draws the dot  and this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:4"> on this this  application</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:0"> box shows that  there's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:7"> that says a user should not  put two dots</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:3"> this restriction on this this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:10"> too close to each other  there's a minimum distance that they  might have</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:6">  application that says a user should not</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:13"> so you imagine the the normal</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:9">put two dots too close to each other  there's a minimum distance that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:16">  you know invocation of this method is</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:12"> they  might have so you imagine the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:19">  very trivial it just draws it as as far  as those</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:15"> the normal  you know invocation</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:22"> violations are not you know  those specifications</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:18"> of this method is  very trivial it just draws it as as</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:25">it's okay  it just but</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:21"> far  as those violations are not you know  those</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:28"> under a corner case is when  actually somebody</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:24"> specifications are not violated  it's okay</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:31"> put a red dot here and  that kind of you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:27">  it just but under a corner case is</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:34"> know violated that  property you</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:30"> when  actually somebody put a red dot here and  that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:37"> don't want you don't want  to implement that that's a that's a hard</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:33"> kind of you know violated that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:40">thing to do potentially a lot of dots  needs to be moved around right so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:36">property you don't want you don't want  to implement that that's</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:43"> in  that case you just don't</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:39">thing to do potentially a lot of dots  needs to be moved</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:46"> handle it in  your in your program and</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:42"> around right so in  that case you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:49"> we're gonna  kind of you can't automatically fall</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:45"> just don't handle it in  your in your program</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:52">back to constraint solving in a sad  solving - to do what</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:48"> and we're gonna  kind of you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:55"> - basically shift  some dots around - to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:51"> can't automatically fall  back to constraint solving in a sad  solving</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:12:58">properties and that's what's happening  here</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:54"> - to do what - basically shift  some dots</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:1"> and you see that that box</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:12:57"> around - to satisfy those  properties and that's what's happening</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:4"> here is  saying there's a restriction of how much  those</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:0">  here and you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:7"> dots are you know are allowed to  shift by by</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:3"> see that that box here is  saying there's a restriction</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:10"> the by the method so you see  that you know</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:6"> of how much  those dots are you know are allowed to  shift</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:13"> these two are shifted a  little bit you know to</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:9"> by by the by the method so</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:16">separation is happening so basically I'm  showing</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:12"> you see  that you know these two are shifted</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:19"> you the code that that does this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:15">little bit you know to make sure the  separation is happening so basically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:22">  this is the this is the</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:18"> I'm  showing you the code that that does</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:25"> entire code that  when you're when you're adding a dot you  see</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:21"> this  this is the</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:28"> that it has this this</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:24"> this is the entire code that  when you're when you're adding a</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:31"> check that it  needs to do that I'm written</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:27"> dot you  see that it has this this</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:34"> here also  in a in a high level syntax</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:30"> check that it  needs to do that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:37"> of alloy the  first order logic that they</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:33"> I'm written here also  in a in</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:40"> have the two  things that says no to dust needs to be  too</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:36"> a high level syntax of alloy the  first order logic that</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:43"> you know too close to each other and  when you do move them you know</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:39"> they have the two  things that says no to dust</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:46"> you're  not allowed to remove them by more than  an</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:42">oo you know too close to each other and  when you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:49"> a value and you see that there's no  implementations here so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:45"> do move them you know you're  not allowed to remove them by more</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:52"> that when I put  that red dot you know it kind</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:48"> than  an a value and you see that there's no  implementations</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:55"> of  automatically figured out</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:51"> here so that when I put  that red dot you</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:13:58">  those are the things that just wanted to  show you so</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:54"> know it kind of  automatically figured out</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:14:1"> if you have any questions or  for</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:13:57">  those are the things that just</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:14:4"> previous</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:14:0"> wanted to  show you so if you have any questions or</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:16:7">before</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:14:3">  for previous</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:16:22">basically</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:16:6">before</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:16:34">but also</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:16:21">basically</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:16:37"> II think that we don't have a  cat</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:16:36">but also II think that we don't have a  cat</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:16:40">  the other</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:16:39">  the other</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:16:52">find that</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:16:51">find</subtitle>
  
<subtitle id="1:16:55">like</subtitle>
+
<subtitle id="1:17:42">those</subtitle>

Latest revision as of 22:03, 6 December 2017

so I'll just put thing you guys whoop I  should
get your signature back
I was  just gonna write the name of I'll
put it  over here so the the
basic apologize
in  advance for a couple of
things one
is  one is the
brevity and the
kind of livid  is a navy term for five
pounds of shit  in a one pound bag and
so we have a lot  more information
that we'd like to talk
  to you about but we haven't ever
been  able to fit it into an hour and
so we're  gonna try
to give you the gist of some  of the things that we're
doing but this  website
Vpr i.org
maybe our talks are kind of a commercial
  to just have
you look at some of the  stuff there so I'm just gonna spend a  few
minutes giving you the context
for a  project
that the NSF reviewers turned
the preposterous proposal when they  turned it down
anybody ever been turned  down by an
NSF peer review
now it turns  out that the program managers at
NSF  have always had the power to override  those and
in this case the program  manager
did override it so we got our  money anyway
but they only gave us money  to
cover about half the expenses of this  project
so we raised a matching amount  of
money to do it it's a project that a
  number of us have been thinking about  for
as long as 30 years that would be  really
interesting to do and
it would be  very much in the original spirit
of what  computer science was supposed to be as  articulated
in the 60s by Al
  so
that kind of
starts with the  quintessential Maxwell's equations  t-shirt
and
this is one that everybody's
  seen and if
you're familiar with Maxwell  you know that he actually
wrote five  papers arriving
at these conclusions and  in five different ways
he did this over  a period of years using
different models  and the original
form of maskull's  equations was not fiddle on a t-shirt
  so this form was
actually made by  several people including
the Germans who  were much more interested in it than the
  British in
no small part because  Maxwell's
equations violated Newton and  Newton was
a god Maxwell was only their  best guy
in the 19th century but Newton  was
a god and of course the
interesting  thing about getting him in this form is
  although Faraday's
experiments showed  that there
should be a symmetric  relationship between the
electric and  magnetic fields the equation didn't
show  those relations as symmetric
and this  asymmetry and this
things led to Einstein's theory of  relativity and
in fact a much simpler  form of writing
these guys down and  reason
I'm putting it up there is I had  a similar
experience when I was in
graduate school trying to understand  programming languages and
I looked at  the bottom of page 13 of the list
1.5  manual and here
was McCarthy's  formulation of Lisp using itself
as a  metal language and
how many people have  had the experience of
going through this  it takes a couple of hours on
a Sunday  afternoon to do and you run out of  fingers
because you have your fingers  down in all the places that recursos
and  reenters and so
forth and I felt I  understand stood it when I found  in
this code there is one bug
and the  thing I got
out of it is boy after those  two hours I
understood what programming  languages were about a factor
hundred better than I did before I went  in because
McCarthy had carved away all  the bullshit and
God that's something
that was more powerful than any other  programming language of the day
powerful expressively the most  programming languages
today and had
done  it in this interesting
form and
in fact  it had a lot of effect on subsequent
  things that were done and because I
had  a math degree I just love
this stuff and  so we
tried these ideas a number of  times on
various projects including some  of the stuff we did it  Xerox
PARC that
gee you can
do a  programming language in under a thousand  lines of
code or you might be able to do  it in the page and
there are advantages  to the
page for sure so
so
the thing we  were speculating about is
do you it'd be  really interesting if
you could apply this way of looking
at  processes to an entire system that's  well
understood like personal computing  so
we have now this interesting idea  that if
science is the study of and  modeling
of phenomena in order to  understand it better we actually
build  artifacts that exhibit interesting
  phenomena and what John
did is to take  the phenomena exhibited by programming
languages of the day and find an  abstraction that
captured them his  abstraction happened to be more powerful  than
the ones he was looking at which is  kind of an old
mathematicians trick you  know solved the more
general problem if  you can and so
the idea here was be
  interesting to take this body
of  behavior from the end-user to the
metal  of the Machine and
try to understand it
by right making a model that you could  actually run it would generate
the same  phenomena and
so how many t-shirts would  it take to
do all of personal computing  that's the question here you
can see why  they called it preposterous right
  because Microsoft's version of this is
a  few hundred million lines of code their
  operating system and the
same Microsoft  Office is about 220 million
lines of  code but if
you think about it with the  view of well what is it
doing really and  how many things in
decided to do differently for example  are
actually the same thing masquerading  under a
few simple parameterizations and
  and also the first time around that this  stuff
was done it was only ten thousand  lines of code it at
Xerox PARC and  there's not a lot more
functionality now
  than there was back then so the idea is  this
could be a lot smaller and
be very  interesting to see for the same reasons
  that these two guys are interesting but  this
would be look look like so that's  what our project  is
and there's one more tea involved  here
which is we one
of the things  that's nice about
making things small  and simple is you got
something like a  Model T Ford which any 12
year old could  take apart in the
barn over the weekend  and put together only had about 350
  major parts in it and about a
thousand  screws and nuts and bolts and stuff so  anybody
who grew up in a farm like I did
where there's still Model T trucks
and  in the 40 they would be routinely taken  apart
they recently were still around  this you couldn't couldn't really
kill  them because everything
that broke on  them was fixable in the blacksmithing
  shop that every farm had back then there  was nothing
true they didn't even have a  distributor they didn't even have gears
  they had
belts and pulleys on them
so  but they're a real automobiles so they  had this
interesting thing they caused  even though their automobiles
around and  before them they caused the automobile  revolution
in America because they were  so easy to
manufacture and they lasted  well and so forth so
just one bottle T
  story the
gap the spark
gap on Model T  was
optimized to be the width of a dime
  and somebody asked Henry Ford once why
  did you do that and he said well people  always
lose gauges but they usually have  a dime on them
so he's fully expected  anybody who's had one of
these things  would be able to just fix it and tweak  it up and
that's what happened so it's a  nice metaphor
so
my theory is before you write the  Ferrari code
you should write model-t  code because there's
a 12 year old kid  who just isn't gonna be able to
understand the Ferrari code and you have  a moral obligation
to write that Model T  code that is understandable
so
kind of  the standard model for personal
  computing is from the
Xerox PARC
  experience and so
the bitmap screen that  can display anything and
a way of  organizing views on
the display and  people
have been confused by the  difference between desktop publishing
  and Microsoft for instance has
been and  window display
they're actually the same  thing just these
guys have boundaries  around the views and
publishing you don't have boundaries  around the views
but aside from that  everything else is exactly the
same and  it was done with the same code
so this  is a modern version of it
and I'm
  disappointed in this display because
  Danny molang has done a lot of work to
  do really fantastic graphics
which some  of the
things are shown here and you  can't see
how crisp and beautiful it is  but this is kind
of a modern version of  it done with some of the stuff that
that  that
we've done and just to show you a  little slant
of it  here
so I I can
edit this as I'm as I'm
  used to doing
and
but I can this
thing is programmed  completely differently than the way you  might think
so for instance the the
code  behind these paragraphs is the
  justification and the editor
for come to  about 23
lines of code in one of the  languages we developed
to do this and  I'm not gonna explain
exactly how we did  this but I'll just give you a little
  flavor of what's actually going on here  so
you can think of this as swarm  programming
so what we have is thousands
  and thousands of parallel processes
  running at the same time and these are
  all objects and
so the slowest
simplest  way you can think of
doing the
problem  here is
well just follow the guy in
front of you if you don't have anybody  in front of you you know where
to go if  you're over the margin tell the guy in  front of you
and if somebody tells you  they're on the margin and you're the
first there's a blank in front of you  then go to the next line all
right so  that's four things that do
a text  justification
Oulu sore anything they're  just all
running and they're related to  each other so we call
this particles and  fields type programming and
there's a  lot of it in this in the system
and you  notice that I've embedded a view
of the  entire document recursively into it so
  that was operating at the same time so
this is basically this kind of stuff in  which
each part of the thing has been  mathematize dand done in
a separate  programming language and of course we  have to
make the programming languages  to do it we have to make the tools to  make the
programming languages to do it
  and
but what we don't try to do so these are  the
three main operating systems and
  won't tell you which one the lemon is
  but they're all big and
we want to avoid  apples and oranges
comparison so
the  stuff that we're doing is is
not there's  nothing that we can do
that can be  honestly compared to
what Microsoft or  Apple do because
they have legacy  problems we don't have
there's a million  things so we don't even worry about that
  but here's a t-shirt with a mustard seed  on
it and that gives you kind of what  we're out after
out after more than a  factor of a thousand change
in the size  of the code that it takes to make this
  kind of phenomena something
more like a  factor of 10,000
and
so
if you have the end-user at one end  and you have a power supply at
the other  you have a lot
of different kinds of  phenomena in there and the question
how many t-shirts do you actually have  to do so
you think of the the two
and a  half D anti-alias graphics as
you'd love  to have that in one or two t-shirts
o that's regularly a couple hundred  thousand lines of
code and if
you think  of the number of different languages you
  might want to invent to mathematize the  different
parts of these things there's  probably five or ten different languages  you
have to do so you have to have a  metal language metal language has
to  deal with itself and and so forth and
  you'd
like to improve semantics of  programming and so
forth so we have a  dozen or so powerful
principles here are  ten of them there's nothing more
boring  than somebody enumerated list
on a slide  so I'll just
point out that most of  these powerful principles
have been around since I started in  computing in the early
60s and most of
them are not in general use today or in  use the way they
were originally used so
  some of these are things that
have been  resurrected so
the particles infield is  something that hasn't
hasn't been used  very much but
the notion of simulating  time not letting the CPU
determine what  time is all about goes back
to both  Simula and john
mccarthy situation  calculus these are
old ideas but they
have the great advantage that you don't  get
deadlocks from trying to use  monitors and semaphores  so
the basic idea is if you simulate the  time that
you're running in you cannot  have race conditions that you haven't  explicitly
allowed and so
on so the  underlying idea here is that
math wins  not standard math but
math that you  actually invent in order
to characterize  all the different behaviors that you
  half and with that I'm going to
turn it  over to Dan amma lang who
will talk to  you a little bit about how we do the  graphics
because this is kind of a  classic case study
of
give you this
dan  is a graduate
student at UC san diego  and
just got his master's for part
his and is on his way to getting his  PhD for
the rest of it
and well what  we'd like to
do here is to I don't
think  anything I said needs questions except  maybe
to the end but be great  I brought
the three people who did a lot  of work
in this system along there
the time you get to my age you're just a  figurehead some
thrill to actual  actually
bring people who are doing  stuff here and to have them
tell you a  little bit about how they're approaching  these
problems and hope you do ask
  questions hello
so like Alan said my  name is
Dan am Liang I'm a grad student  like you guys
so go easy on me I'm
  getting towards the end of my
times of  PhD students so
I'm gonna present to you  basically
where I am on my dissertation  work I have still
about a year and a  little more than
that to go although  I've noticed that kind of just extends
  forward it's a tradition of PhD
students  right so
I'm a UCSD PhD student and I  but
I'm also an employee of viewpoints  Research Institute
and so my little  niche in this project
is the 2d  rendering system because we'd
build  a whole
basically a whole software stack
and we're not allowed to just delegate  to the
operating system routines we want  to reinvent programming
at every level  so I have some background in computer
  graphics and some in programming  languages
and computer architecture and  so
basically it fell on me to
figure out  how to do two new rendering so the the
sub-project of mine is called Jazeera  and like
I said it's a 2d graphics  rendering the spirit of this project
the  idea is to provide something that's  practical
useful for the other projects  sub
projects that viewpoints to actually  use specifically
the focus right now is  building
user interfaces and so my
job  is to discover what are the minimal  algorithms
the powerful abstractions new  representations so
that I don't use up  our code but budget and
just in my sub  project because
the goal here is again  is to happen
and you know the whole  system's the whole thing is is minimal
  so and again this isn't
hough I'm doing computer graphics the  focus here is more
software engineering  I'm not going to do
anything that's  really advancing the state-of-the-art  computer
graphics so much so
what are  the requirements of this graphics  library
well today in today's systems
  you expect anti-aliased vector graphics
  what people use nowadays is typically  flash
SVG core graphics on mac OS x
  windows presentation foundation so
that  that's kind of and not my competitors  but
what's similar to what
currently  provides that functionality today
in  commercial systems right so in
that in a  2d render you want to have bezzie
  outlines for your shapes you want to be  able to display text
transformations  clipping all pretty
traditional stuff  the blending
operations digital images  pen stroking for
the outline of  of
shapes so as
I was working on this I  started with the Cairo open-source
  vendor project
which I've been working  on before I joined
viewpoints and so I  was able to take kind of a lessons
learned from working on Cairo which is  the render
behind Firefox and various
  open source applications and so
as I was  kind of going through the Cairo code and
  thinking you know stepping back from it  and figure
out what really is the high  level intention
of these coders I came
  across the rasterization stage which is  probably
the most complex part of the  whole
software library anyone who's  taken an undergrad
computer graphics of  course that's had to implement
like  scanline fill knows that it's it's it's
kind of tricky getting all the edge  cases and and there really
isn't a  strict formula that tells you what what
he output should be there it's usually  described as some sort
of an algorithm  with data structures active edge list  etc
and and so I couldn't figure
know what really is the highest level  semantics of rasterization
so
and it's  difficult so I looked
at I look at some  kind of non-traditional algorithms
for  forwarding Astros ation especially
things specific to 2d because I can kind  of ignore the complexities
of 3d here  and
and and you
know one one method kind  of stuck out at me there's
this approach  called analytic area based anti-aliasing
  rasterization that looks sort of like
formula but everyone's still expressed  in terms of like a big
K statement and  so I felt
you know there's still  something to be extracted here so I
  called my mom
luckily she's a high  school geometry teacher
and  a great
partner to have and trying to  figure out all this computational
  geometry that I was in the middle and so  we had
we sat down for about 10 days and
  did like pair programming with a pencil  and paper
and we didn't end up with an  interesting formula
if you pose a  problem this way if we
say given the XY  coordinates to the lower left corner of
a pixel we can say that the coverage  contribution of
one edge of that shape  is calculated
this way so if we just  look at it one edge at a time you
can  actually use it using an approximation
  square for the pixel you can the bottom
function is what you is kind of what you  want to look at most
it's just that you  can actually combine these
three pretty  much standard functions in in
2d  geometry in an interesting way
that gets  you a nice coverage
result from 0 to 100  so if the the
pixel is entirely outside  of the figure at 0 if
entirely within you get 100 if it's on  the edge you get somewhere
between the  two and
I only have 10 minutes but
  basically the top one is variation
of  the area of a trapezoid the second one  is the
clamp function in mathematics and  the third one is a
variation of the  point slope formula
for line anyway
once we have it for that one edge then  it
works out such that you the total  coverage
contribution of the entire  polygon is just a linear
combination of  those edge contributions with the little  additional
adjustment so now we have a  formula
but this doesn't execute so
I  haven't really won yet but at
least I've  you know posed it in a way that then I  can
imagine some sort of higher-level  language that can that
can turn this  into actual executable code so the  punchline
is oh okay so then to verify  it  you
know I wrote some prototypes I have
this node demo all I'll do for you  basically you're
going to see you're  gonna see
1,000 snowflakes they're all  identical so
it's not very realistic  that all
have independent position  a vertical velocity
and angular velocity  and
I'll just animate them and I'm not
using the GPU at all here this is just  on the CPU
I render it to an image a  bitmap and
then just hand it to the  operating system to throw up on the  screen
and so this isn't really speed  demon
per se but it's just to prove that  first of all visual
results are good and  that
it's fast enough that I'm not  paying myself into a corner
yeah and  then so after it starts up it'll
fade in  a bit this is actually supposed to be  white
or light blue on black you just  imagine
this I'm sorry it's
kind of  painful for maintenance
and so I just no  flex because we
want to render text  really quickly without having to use
some sort of cash and speech scheme  because that kind of muddies up your
code so as long as I can render  something that's text like
because each  one of these snowflakes
is composed of  64 cubic Bezier which
is usually much  more than what a typical
glyph is that  you render on the screen
so as long as I  can do these snowflakes quickly then you  know that
I can make a case that it'll  scale out to the text
rendering so  zooming and just to show you that it's  vector
graphics not not just
raster  graphics it's being scaled it's it's
coming from the vector primitives at  each frame
yeah this is like when the  screen savers you
can stare out all day  but hip denies
me enough so then
so then  yeah here's the punchline
the goal was  to figure out how to express all that
in  80 lines of code
and I'll explain what  this is so
this is a new programming  language called called
nyle again the  goal is to
express the 2d rendering in a  way that is both succinctly
on matted to  a variety of execution
environments and  doesn't preclude efficient execution
  so after
writing these prototypes it
it  seemed to me that the best model
for for  the software would be a dataflow
stream  processing model more generic
then then  like the stream the stream languages
  today are kind of more tied to specific  deep
to GPU hardware this is kind of a  more
abstract stream processing model so
  yeah the idea is that everything is
just data streams that are being  processed by a series of kernels
that  have been connected in a network and in  an interesting
interesting fashion and  you get your pixel values
at that at the  end of the pipeline and then we want
optimize the syntax for each one of  those kernels for
expressing arithmetic  vector
computations you know domain  basically
domain-specific language for  arithmetic
stream processing and
then we  want to be able to then generate
code  for a variety of environments so like a  generate
code to see because that'll get  a sufficient execution javascript
interesting because it's dynamic we can  do demos and the browser easily
it's  they could perhaps you know we
can make  a nice IDE out of it perhaps we
target more exotic languages like  Haskell which
ends up having similar  Nile has very
similar sin that semantics  in Haskell and then
you know we could go  blue sky and say maybe
we can generate  code that runs on the GPU directly from  the
math and maybe we can go even  further and if and and
generate hardware  directly
from the specifications that's  expressed in this high-level
map we'll  see haven't done that yet yes sure
why
right so I am I am depending
on some  magic technology that
can express my  compiler in some very succinctly
luckily  I'm not the only one on this project
you  can probably tell it comes after
my talk  right so
I'm gonna breeze through this  real quick but this is
explanation of the semantics of the  language with
two example kernels on the  bottom
yeah it's kind of like kind
of a  it's kind of a mix of Haskell and APL
  but a very restricted subset of Haskell
  with yeah
sorry I gotta move on so
now  that now that I have this program this  this
programming language to express it  in now
I can get you know the core more
than just the core of a 2d rendering  about 386 lines
of code really the
two files are the ones that are needed  for for
the snow demo the rest of them  are
kind of they
expanded of beyond just  the core way you need from a 2d renderer  the compositor
does although compositing  blending modes you get in in
flash in  PDF pen stroking gets you the outlines  etc
etc but
now I have to get it to run  even though I have this language so
initially I was just kind of manly  translated
I had like two windows open  one with my Niall ideal
code and then  one with like JavaScript or C and
I'd  kind of pretend like I were a compiler  during
the early stages of the project  but then
alex is can demonstrate a  translator
that the
he worked on that  allowed us to generate JavaScript that
  could allow this renderer to code code  to
run in a web browser so
see
I thought this oh of course not sorry
one  so
  so we can do just
basic rendering and  the way
I do this in the web browser and  I'm actually doing all the work in  JavaScript
and then there's an API call  I can use in the web
browser if anyone  knows about the canvas tag I can get I
can fill this a JavaScript array with  color values and
then tell the browser  just throw those color values on
the  screen exactly the way I've popular.if
  them in the ray which gets me sort of  like a
rudimentary frame buffer so you  can zoom in and see
that you know it's  anti-alias I
know it looks horrible on  the projector huh
it is we need so
that  gets us basic anti-aliased rendering and
  then I'll just do one more that's
seen  and
then we get little fancier with
Safari has an
unusual bug sometimes it  doesn't pull in there we go we
can use  one of those compositing operations to  get
this same star that's been rendered  but textured
with with the radial  gradient on on to
the picture background  so
you can get a pretty good idea the  the color fades away as
from the radius it's kind of a standard  2d
rendering okay
all right so
but wait  but
now we're working on a novel to see  translator again we're doing
translation first alex is working on  translator
to go to see and and then
hopefully you know this is something  we're hoping to have the next
days will have a practical real-world  graphics render
synthesized from this  high-level high level mathematics
and  just to give you an idea of how this  fits
into the whole software development  cycle just for the C
generator we have  these novel files now
programs go  through a novelty translator we spit
out  a header file a C file sent it through
the C compiler we get an object file  which we link with a
bit of runtime  support very little
then you have  you have
your application all
right so  everything we have just
general policy  in the company is everything is  open-source
MIT license you can check  out my
stuff on github and the future  work is
to expand the backends for the  compiler
expand the feature set I want  to have something that's pretty
close to  the commercial 2d renders and
then I'd  like to
try other problem domains that
  I'm hoping are well suited or that my  language
is well suited for like audio  decoding or 3d rendering
video decoding  data decompression
that type of stuff so  I don't have
much time  I'm am I'm at a time so
maybe we can  hold questions for when we're all done  is
thanks now this
microphone working yes
hi so I'm Alex
and just jump
and I guess even before I started  working with Alan
I was a programming  languages geek kind of and I
always like  having ideas about things that could  help out
programmers and stuff one thing  that really gets to
me :  especially at that time
that really got  to me was that you can't
just keep  having ideas and just sort of you
know  experiment with the ideas quickly  because
you have to prototype a  programming language when
ideas and that usually takes a lot of  time there's
a lot of effort that goes  into it and programming language
  designers like me we tend to get
lethargic you know and feel like oh man  okay I have a
couple of ideas that might  work but I really have to be
selective  because I don't have infinite time to  implement
all these things and so I
was  so upset about this so
I called my mom  and she said she
said Alex I'm a  dermatologist what do you want me to do
  so that didn't help very much but
but
  yeah thank you all so that
luckily Alan  pointed me to some
papers from the 1960s  and 70s that were
really interesting and  one of them was
a paper by Val Shui
who  was a guy at UCLA in the 60s and
it was  about a language called meta 2 that
he  developed and it was a language
it was a  compiler generator kind of
very similar to parsing expression  grammars that
are sort of involved now  and but
the but this was in the 60s and  the computing
resources that Valve we  had were
very limited and so
and yet  somehow he was
able to come up with this  little language that was fairly easy
to  learn and allowed him to
implement a  pretty interesting
subset of Algol in  like a page of code
and the language  itself the the meta language could
be  compiled by itself in about a page
of  code as well and so I  get that stuff
and I thought wow I have  to implement this on my own to try this  out
  you know the bootstrapping was beautiful  everything
so once I did that which
took a day or so  I felt
really empowered because I had  been using these
uh these larger  frameworks like polyglot for
extending  Java they had written things by hand
  quite a few times to
know that you know  it was very costly and so
when I started  doing this thing with meta 2 I got
  excited and I started extending it to  kind
of catch up with the times because  for instance the
original thing didn't  support backtracking
because resources  were limited
and by now you can do as  much backtracking as you want and it's
  not a big deal so anyway
I had some  ideas about extensions that I could have
  on this thing and this this was
kind of  the the birth of my language called Oh  meta which
we have used to implement  several programming
languages in this  project that we're experimenting with  and
the goal of this thing is to  minimize
the amount of time that it  takes to go from idea to
a working  prototype and I'm
not so much I'm not so  worried about the
efficiency of the  prototype or whatever as long as I can  get something
that runs efficiently  enough for me to try out the
idea and  make sure that it's that
it's a you know  an interesting thing to pursue further
and so on  but we've had a pretty good luck with  that
kind of thing and things that we've  made with it have
been fairly efficient  so far so what you're looking at
right  now is kind of like a small talk  workspace
interface that lets you type  in some code and evaluate
it on the fly  and this is running inside the browser I
have several meta implementations this  particular
one uses JavaScript as the  target language as the assembly
language  underneath and so in this
web browser I  can just type in a
bunch of code like  well even any
JavaScript expression like  that I can
evaluate on the fly but  that's
not very interesting right  because I as a language guy I
control over the language that I'm using  and so the
you tell it to evaluate is not  necessarily the
stuff that gets  evaluated there's a level of Indra
there's an interaction here in this  function groups
called translate code  that
gets called with this string that  you want to evaluate
and is supposed to  return the the
thing that you pass to  the eval function in JavaScript
so it  doesn't matter what it says right now
  but the cool thing about this
is it lets  you replace the programming language  that's been
that's being used in this  interface very
easily and of course it's  very self-serving
because Oh Matta is  sort of the ideal language as
concerned to write something like  translate code  I'm
very modest so
let's see here I
  don't know why I can't see
well oh
know what's going on hang on one sec  technical
difficulties okay so
instead  of going over the language and
stuff I'm  just gonna say few words about it
hen I'm gonna show you a bunch of  examples and end up with
Dan's niall  translator so the
the main idea in the  language is that pattern matching is
good for most things that you care about  in writing a
translator for instance if  all you care about
is lexical analysis  you could pattern match on a stream of  characters
and produce a stream of  tokens similarly to
write a parser you  can pattern match on the stream of  tokens
to produce parse trees and then  code
generation at least naive code  generation can be
done by pattern  matching on a parse tree to
output some  code and so on even transformations
on  parse trees and optimizations can be  done
in the same way and so
let's start  off with something
fairly standard so
little while ago is set down with a  friend of mine and
I wrote a library in  JavaScript that's about 70
lines of code  that implements
the semantics of Prolog  including your unification
backtracking  all that stuff and that's
what's being  loaded on the top of the page the
that you see right here  is
a grammar written in omena that
  teaches the browser how to understand  Prolog syntax
it doesn't include things  like the special
list syntax you know in  Prolog but
that doesn't matter anyway  because it's just syntactic sugar so
the  the important stuff is there and it's
  fairly easy to grasp and gist and so on
  so I'm gonna load this stuff
and okay
  now
down here I can tell
my Prolog  translator to answer certain
Prolog  queries given a few
facts and rules just  like you would do in a in a
real Prolog  interpreter and so
in this first example  I'm asking for all the natural numbers  given
that zero is a natural number and  the successor of X is
a natural number  if X is a natural number and so
if I  select this stuff
and tell it to execute  it's
saying that zero is a natural  number so it's kind of small one
natural number two is a natural number  and so on
forever until I tell it I'm
  done and then this next example should
  be very familiar it's
it's
the usual  thing that everyone does in Prolog
in  their first couple of sessions
right  it's a it's an all
male in child world
  so I'm asking for all the grandfather  and
grandchild relationships given that  you
know Abe is Homer's father Homer's  Lisa's father homers
Bart's father and  homey Homer is
Maggie's father and then  there's the rule
for grandfather in  there
which yeah it doesn't include  women I guess
I'm not PCs so
when I say  that you get the right answers
it  enumerates all the three relationships  that
you care about so
to show  one
of these before I move on to the  meaty scope
where
is this by
the way  this is a wiki also and so anyone
who's  interested in this stuff can just open  up this webpage
on their browser without  downloading anything and see
projects try them out and make their own  project save
them and so on
so ok on  this page
what I have it's roughly a  page of
code here this is logo syntax  and
on the left hand side you see sort
  of the BNF style rules to describe
logo syntax using left recursion and  stuff it's
fairly readable and on the  right hand side there's
some JavaScript  code that's being output by the semantic
  actions and and then
this is the neat  part after I've defined
there's a little bit of runtime support  above
the grammar I can read the find
translate code to be a function that  takes in the code that
you tell it to  evaluate and then passes
to smiley my  turtle the code to evaluate and
and it  doesn't return any useful
value  undefined by the way I'm returning the  undefined
string because one JavaScript  tries
to evaluate the undefined string
  it's not going to do much so if I
select  all this stuff and tell it to
evaluate  quickly this added
my code added a you  know dynamically
added a canvas elements  to this page and
then down here
so
it's  also switched the language that's  understood
by this browser where there's  a work space
so I can teach it to do a  spiral which
is code that I actually  took from the Wikipedia page on
on logo  and then
if I tell it to draw a spiral  and I can
call  it was too quickly
- up but I can draw
ell hopefully I don't
cheating but it actually draws in  real-time
and it looks really cute so  anyway now
I'm going to show you some  more interesting examples
first thing I  want to show you is that
there's a  little JavaScript
compiler it's not  really a compiler that's a bit of a  misnomer
what this is in this case by
  the way I have implemented a very
nearly  complete subset of JavaScript it's
about  like maybe 90 or 95% of the
language  using all meta and I have a translator
  that takes the JavaScript program and
  outputs some small talk and it
works on  top of squeak so that's pretty neat to  play with
but I don't have time to show  that today and I
have a couple other  backends for that but in this case what
  I have is a JavaScript parser written in  nomada
that's about 120 140
code I don't remember exactly what it is  and then
after that I have a translator
that pattern matches on the parse trees  that I generate
and outputs the  JavaScript code again so it's sort of  the identity
transformation on  JavaScript which on its own is not
interesting but the neat thing about it  is that once you
have something like  that you can easily because Oh Matta is  object-oriented
you can inherit from  these grammars and override
certain  rules for instance if you want to add
new kind of statement you override the  statement rule and
uh and add some new  construct
so I'm gonna skip
over that  example but you you guys get the idea so
  far right okay and of course
O'Meara is  implemented in itself
so
in a very  similar style
to that JavaScript  translator that
I just showed you so  this is the parser for Oh Mehta and
  underneath is the code generator which  just
translates the parse trees to  JavaScript and
I have a little bit of a  library that I wrote that's
maybe  something like 50 lines of
whatever that supports the semantics of  Oh meta in JavaScript
and that's the way  a bootstrap Oh
you  you just implement
a very minimal set of  semantics as a
library in that host  language and then I do
the parsing and  cogeneration in no
matter but one  interesting thing here
is that you don't  have to do this you know very direct
  two-step process you can do
interesting things with it so for  instance the
O meta translator is just  taking a parse tree and
outputting the  JavaScript but my parser is not  extremely
smart for instance if you if
  you have nested or expressions you know
hile you're doing your pattern matching  as you often do if
I use parentheses you  know I say X or Y or
Z that's going to  generate two
or operations you know and  the or operation
no matter has to  remember the position that you're at so
that it can backtrack properly and so on  and
that's sort of wasteful so one thing
  that I did
that was very straightforward  was
I implemented an optimal optimus
  asian framework for all meta parse trees  in
nomada itself after I had the stuff
  working and so what you see on top here  is a grammar
that pattern matches on a  parse tree
for a matter and by looking  at this you can see how little
to implement in order to have a language  like cometa it's
very similar to Brian  for its pegs you
know you only have or  and cleani
star cleany plus this is  assignment
which is used for binding  expressions to names
there's a knot  operation look
ahead and so on so it's  fairly straightforward anyway
this is  kind of like a visitor for a meta
parse  trees and on its own
it's not very  useful but then down here what I'm doing
  is I'm ism inheriting this visitor and  overriding
the and and orals so
that  when I have nesting you know if I have  an end
that has an end as an argument I  can pull out
the parts of that end
into  the outer end and the semantics is going  to be
the same except it's going to be  more efficient because I only have
you  know to implement that one operation
  and and when I implemented
this the the  Oh manage is implementation
became I  think 30 percent faster which was pretty
  neat for very minimal effort
anyway oh  yeah
and the last thing I want to show  you here before I
show the Dan
stuff is  so if you
if you end up taking the time  to take a look to
look at this stuff  online I encourage you to look at this  project
it's called meta to t oo which  is a pun
on you know the meta to which  had
the Roman numeral two that I told  you about before
and what this is is a  language that's very
close to a meta  implemented entirely
in this little  project and so at first this
this  javascript object that
you see up here  is a is the
library like object that
implements all of the semantics that you  need for doing the
parsing and pattern  matching and then down here
what I have  is the parser for this language
written  in know meta and then I have a couple of
  examples you know with with
arithmetic  expressions and so on but
then of course  that is not sufficient to do  bootstrapping
but what you really need  to do is once
you have the the Oh Matt  alike language working
you want to write  that you want to implement that guy in
  itself which is what I do down
here  and you can see it's a little bit
uglier  than no matter particularly because the  semantic
actions have to be enclosed in  these funny
characters and so on but I  did that so that I wouldn't
have to  implement the JavaScript parser as part
of this thing right so I can just  blindly consume the JavaScript
and  output it in the translated code
so  anyway that's
the implementation of that  and you can compile the compiler with
e original compiler that I wrote with  no meta and it works
and then the thing  that really tests it later
on is if you  take the the version
of the compiler  that was generated from the code up
here  by using the no matter you know compiler
  if you take that and and
compile it with  itself and replace the thing you're
  using with that result and it still  works down
here you know you're you're  good and that
kind of works so it's a  it's a neat little example of  bootstrapping
if you want to take a look
  at that later on so I think
oh yeah one  less thing that I want to show here